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Dinoglyfs - Prehistoric Creatures Documented by the Ancient Man

Extra appendixes outside the PhD manuscript

Fossil Biochemistry - Ancient macromolecules

FOSSILOMICS

http://www.massspec.net/index.aspx?ID=93578 & BIOCOMPARE

Thermo Fisher MS Instruments Used by Harvard University to Identify Proteins in Dinosaur Fossils and Cancer Pathways.

Thermo Scientific LTQ linear ion trap &

LTQ Orbitrap XL used to extract and sequence tiny pieces of collagen protein from dinosaurs.

Wyckoff, RWG: The Biochemistry of Animal Fossils (Scientechnica, Bristol, 1972)

According to Wyckoff, it had long been taken for granted that proteins could persist for geological periods of time and the first microscope photos of intact collagen fibers came as a surprise (p. 53). The first conclusions from these first studies was, that the amino acids have not been altered in more than 100 millions of radiometric years and that the proteins were not anymore simpler than those now being produced. Wyckoff writes (p. 81):

"It is significant for the future study of still older material that many of the Jurassic bones have retained as much proteins as the younger Cretaceous. These analyses support and extend the indications obtained with the younger Pliocene and Miocene specimens that the amount of protein in old fossils declines only slowly with age Though invertebrate shells rather quickly lose a large part of their original protein, the oldest yet examined have retained sufficient quantities for study. It is a noteworthy fact that after an initial fall the amounts retained in both vertebrate and invertebrate fossils do not show a futher steady decline with age; clearly these residues are so stable that they may confidently be sought in the ooldest obtainable specimes." (Emphasis added.)

See http://www.helsinki.fi/~pjojala/Mryr.htm

SPECIMEN IDENTIFICATION

THIS appendix lists the fossil specimens to which reference is
made in the text. It states, after this laboratory's identifying
numbers, only enough information to make intelligible their use
in text, tables, and figure legends. In most cases common names
have been employed. Where these fossils have formed part of
published work further details can be found in the appropriate
articles.
Many of the specimens have been collected from nearby local-
ities by members of the laboratory staff. Other persons have also
contributed specimens that have been invaluable in furthering
the work. We especial1y wish to express gratitude to the fol1ow-
ing: J. R. Macdonald and the Los Angeles County Museum of
Natural History; J. A. Jensen and the Earth Sciences Museum
of Brigham Young University; E. H. Colbert and the American
Museum of Natural History; R. Dughi and the Musee d'Histoire
Naturel1e d' Aix-en-Provence ; M. Dawson and the Carnegie
Museum (Pittsburgh).
V631: Bradysaurus (primitive reptile) bone fragment, Perlnian.
V633: Desmostylus tooth fragment, Miocene, Monocline Ridge, Ca1i-
fornia.
V6351: Plesippus (early horse) tooth, Plio-Pleistocene, City Canyon,
Texas
.
V6383: Turtle scute fragments, Eocene, Tabemacle Butte, Wyoming.
V63 101: Dicynodont (reptilian) bone, Triassic, Karroo Beds, South
Mrica
.
V63184: Stegomastodon molar, Pleistocene, Safford, Arizona.
V63210: Equus (horse) bone, Pleistocene, Safford, Arizona.
V63217: Horse molar, Pleistocene, Rancho La Brea, Ca1ifomia.
V63218: Bison tooth, Pleistocene, Rancho La Brea, Califomia.
V63220: Panthera atrox tooth, Pleistocene, Rancho La Brea, Ca1ifomia.
V63233: Horse bone, Pliocene, Wikieup, Arizona.
V63234: Mastodon bone, Pleistocene, Benson, Arizona.
V63244 : Ungulate bone, Pleistocene, Rancho La Brea, Califomia. V63247: Canis dirus {wolf) bone, Pleistocene, Rancho La Brea, Ca1i-
fomia.
V63289: Camel bone, Pleistocene, Benson, Arizona.
V63291: Ungulate bone, Pleistocene, Benson, Arizona.
V6329S: Ungulate bone, Pleistocene, Benson, Arizona. V63378: Mastodon bone, Pleistocene, Benson, Arizona.
V63421: Unidentified bone scrap, Pleistocene, Benson, Arizona. V6344 7: Unidentified bone scrap, Pleistocene, Benson, Arizona.
V634S6: Mastodon tusk, Pleistocene, Benson, Arizona.
V63477 : Ungulate bone scrap, Pliocene, Wikieup, Arizona. V63481: Ungulate bone scrap, Pliocene, Wikieup, Arizona. V63486: Ungulate bone scrap, Pliocene, Wikieup, Arizona. V6349S: Ungulate bone scrap, Pliocene, Wikieup, Arizona. V63S09: Ungulate bone scrap, Pliocene, Wikieup, Arizona. V63S26: Ungulate bone scrap, Pliocene, Wikieup, Arizona. V63S39: Ungulate bone scrap, Pliocene, Wikieup, Arizona.
V63S62: Ungulate bone scrap, Pliocene, Walnut Grove, Arizona. V63636: Phytosaur tooth, Triassic, Petrified Forest, Arizona. V63689: Bones, cow, Recent, Arizona desert, sun-dried.
163693: Venus campechiensis, Pleistocene, Cape May, New Jersey. V63724: Sagenodus copeanus (lung fish) bone, Pennsylvanian, Kansas. V642: Horse bone, Pleistocene, Rancho La Brea, Califomia.
V648: Ground sloth tooth, Pleistocene, Rancho La Brea, Califomia. V6410: Ungulate tooth, Pleistocene, Egypt. V6416: Mammal bone, Oligocene, Egypt.
V6417: Brontotherium tooth, Oligocene, White River Farm, Nebraska. V641 13: Pristis (sawfish, ray) bone fragment, Eocene, Egypt. V64117: Sirenian rib, Miocene, Califomia.
V64118: Mammoth tusk, Pleistocene, Irvington, California.
V64142: Pristis (sawfish, ray) bone fragment, Eocene, Egypt.
V6414S: Felis atrox tooth, Pleistocene, Rancho La Brea, Califomia.
V64148: Smilodon (californicus) bone, Pleistocene, Rancho La Brea,
Ca1ifomia.
V64149: Smilodon bone, Pleistocene, Rancho La Brea, Califomia. V641SI: Ground sloth tooth, Miocene, Colombia.
V64184: Gopher bone, Pleistocene, Rancho La Brea, California. V6418S: Gopher jaw bone, Pleistocene, Rancho La Brea, Califomia. V6SS: Camel bone, Pleistocene, Rancho La Brea, California.
V6S6: Smilodon bone, Pleistocene, Rancho La Brea, Califomia. V6S7: Bison bone, Pleistocene, Rancho La Brea, Califomia.
V6S8: Ground sloth bone, Pleistocene, Rancho La Brea, Califomia. V6S9: Camel jawbone, Pleistocene, Rancho La Brea, Califomia.
V6S II: Canis dirus (wolf) jawbone, Pleistocene, Rancho La Brea, Califomia.
V6S12: Coyote jawbone, Pleistocene, Rancho La Brea, Califomia. V6S13: Panthera atrox jawbone, Pleistocene, Rancho La Brea, Cali-
fornia.
V6SIS: H~rse bone, Pleistocene, Rancho La Brea, Califomia.
V6SI9: Dinosaur bone, Cretaceous, Texas.
V6S2I: Bear bone, Pleistocene, Rancho La Brea, Califomia.
V6S22: Panthera atrox bone, Pleistocene, Rancho La Brea, Califomia. V6S24: Mastodon tooth, Pleistocene, Rancho La Brea, California. V6S26: Bison bone, Pleistocene, Rancho La Brea, Califomia. V6S28: Horse bone, Pliocene, Hagennan, Idaho.
V662: Sphenacodon (Pelycosaur reptile) bone, Permian, New Mexico.
V664: Diadectes (primitive reptile) bone, Permian, Seymour, Texas. V666: Mosasaur (marine lizard) bone, Cretaceous, Niabraro Fonna-
tion (Fm), Kansas.
V66IO: Therapsid reptilian bone, Triassic, Chinle Fm, Arizona. V66I3: Mosasaur (marine lizard) vertebra, Cretaceous, Panoche Hills,
Califomia.
V6643: Manunoth tooth, Pleistocene, Tuba City, Arizona.
V67I: Phytosaur sku1l bones, Triassic, Chinle Fm, Arizona.
V674: Sauropod dinosaur bones, Jurassic, Morrison Fm, Wyoming. V67S: Hadrosaur (duck billed) dinosaur bones, Cretaceous, Oldman
Fm, Alberta, Canada.
V672I: Bison bone, Hell Gap, Wyoming.
V673 I: Manunoth bone, Early man, Union Pacific Mammoth Site, Wyoming.
V6733: Manunoth tusk, Early man, Union Pacific Mammoth Site, Wyoming.
V6734: Bison bone, Early man, Olsen-Chubbuck, Colorado. V6783 : Horse teeth, Pliocene, Wikieup, Arizona. V6788: Human femur, Modem.
I67II4: Pecten madisonius, Miocene, Jamestown Ferry, Virginia. V67II6: Whale bones, Miocene, Jamestown Ferry, Virginia.
V67I38: Sauropod dinosaur limb bone, Jurassic, Morrison Fm, Wyoming.
V67I4o: Dinosaur bone scrap, Cretaceous, Lance Fm, Montana. V67I42: Dinosaur bone scrap, Cretaceous, Edmonton Fm, Montana. V67I46: Dinosaur toe bone, Cretaceous, Lance Fm, Montana. V67I47: Dinosaur toe bone, Cretaceous, Lance Fm, Montana. V67I48: Dinosaur sacrum, Jurassic, Morrison Fm, Wyoming.
V67ISO: Diplodocus dinosaur bones, Jurassic, Morrison Fm, Wy- oming.
V67IS4: Mosasaur (marine lizard) bone scrap, Cretaceous, Niobrara Fm, Kansas.
V67IS5: Mosasaur (marine lizard) bone scrap, Cretaceous, Niobrara Fm, Kansas.
V67IS6: Crocodilian bone, Cretaceous, Greensand Fm, New Jersey. V67I62: Mosasaur (marine lizard) bones, Cretaceous, Niobrara Fm,
Kansas.
V68I6: Diceratherium (rhinoceros) tooth, Miocene, Agate Springs, Nebraska.
V6820: Merycodus (prongbuck) bones, Plicene, Valentine Fm, Nebraska.
V6828: Teleost fish skeleton, Jurassic, Antofagasta Province, Chile.
V6835: Tortoise carapace, Oligocene, Brule Fm, South Dakota.
V6837: Hadrosaur (duck bill dinosaur) tendon, Cretaceous, Hell Creek Fm, Montana.
V6843: Dinosaur ( ?) egg-shells, Cretaceous, North Horn Fm, Utah. V6844 : Dinosaur ( ?) egg-shells, Cretaceous, Cedar Mountain Fm,
Utah.
V6846: Aepyornis egg-shell, Pleistocene, Madagascar . V6850: Garfish scales, Eocene, locality unknown.
V6851: Dinosaur toe bone, Cretaceous, Lance Fm, Wyoming. ~.;,,; V6852: Dinosaur bone fragment, Jurassic, Morrison Fm, Wyoming.
~':;)j; V6857: Eupelor (amphibian) vertebra, Triassic, Chin1e Fm, Arizona. V6860: Dinosaur tooth, Cretaceous.
V6867: Crocodilian bone, Cretaceous, Greensand Fm, New Jersey. V6869: Dinosaur bones, Cretaceous, Laramie Beds, Montana. V6877: Redwinged blackbird egg, Recent.
V6878: Great blue heron egg-shells, Recent.
V6879: Black-necked stilt egg-shells, Recent. V6880: Magpie egg-shells, Recent.
V6884: Human tooth, about 2000 years old.
V6885: Basiliscus plumbifrons (basilisk) egg-shell, Recent. V6887: Rhinoceros iguana egg-shells, Recent.
V6888: Gopherus agassizi (desert tortoise) egg-shells, Recent.
V6889: Testudo elephantopus (Galapagos tortoise) egg-shells, Recent. V6890: Crocodylus johnsoni egg-shell, Recent.
V6891: Malacocherus tornieri (Mrican soft-shelled tortoise) egg-shells, Recent.
V6893: Alligator mississippiensis egg-shells, Recent.
V6894: Dromiceius novae hollandiae (emu) egg-shells, Recent, Aus- tra1ia.
V6896: Casuarius unappendiculatus ( cassowary) egg-shells, Recent, Island of Salawatti.
V6897: Struthio camelus australis ( ostrich) egg-shells, Recent, Mrica.
V6898: Alligator mississippiensis egg.shells, Recent, Florida. V68101: Dinosaur egg.shells, Cretaceous, Gobi Desert.
V68108: Ungulate tooth fragments, Pliocene, Wikieup, Arizona.
V681 12: Gallus gallus (chicken) egg-shells, Recent, Tucson, Arizona. V681 13: Horse tooth fragments, Pliocene, Wikieup, Arizona. V696: Ptychodus (skate) tooth, Cretaceous, South Dakota.
V697: Taeniolabis (primitive mammal) teeth, Palaeocene, Patterson .
Site, Wyoming.
V6912: Rhinoceros teeth, Oligocene, Brule Fm, Wyoming.
V6931: Aepyornis egg-shells, Pleistocene, Madagascar.
16932: Crassostrea virginica, Pleistocene, Horry County, Carolina.
16933: Ostrea sculpturata, Pliocene, Myrtle Beach, South Carolina. 16935: Ostrea ventilabum, Oligocene, Klein-Spauwen, Belgium.
16937: Ostrea johnsoni, Eocene, Jackson, Clarke County , Alabama. 16938: Ostrea compressirostra, Palaeocene, Potomac Creek, Virginia.
16941: Gryphaea convexa, Cretaceous, Cream Ridge, New Jersey. V6946: Ornitholithus arcuatus egg-shells, Eocene, Bassin-du-Rhone,
St. Antonin-sur-Bayon, France.
16954: Ostrea sp. (oysters), Miocene, Calvert Beach, Mary1and. 16959: Pecten eboreus, Pliocene, Horry County, South Carolina. 16960: Pecten crassicardo, Miocene, Cammati Canyon, California. 16961: Chlamys madisonius, Miocene, Calvert Beach, Maryland. 16962: Glycymeris americana, Pliocene, Myrtle Beach, South Carolina. 16966: Cardita planicosta, Eocene, Brack1esham Fm, England.
16989: Ostrea sp., Pleistocene, Huatabampito, Sinaloa, Mexico. 16990: Arca pacifica, Pleistocene, Huatabampito, Sinaloa, Mexico. 16994: Dinocardium robustum, Pleistocene, Horry County, South
Carolina
.
16995: Chione morsitans, Pleistocene, Horry County, South Carolina. 16996: Saxidomus giganteus, Pleistocene, San Mateo County, Cali-
fornia.
16997: Mercenaria carolinensis, Pleistocene, Horry County, South Carolina.
16998: Mercenaria sp., Pleistocene, Wailes Bluff, Maryland. 16999: Dosinia discus, Pleistocene, Virginia Beach, Virginia.
169100: Lunatia sp. (gastropod), Pleistocene, Virginia Beach, Virginia. 169101: Busycon carica (gastropod), Pleistocene, New Bem, North
Carolina
.
1709: Pseudopecten equivalvis, Jurassic, Block1ey, Gloucestershire, England.
17018: Corals (coelenterates), Pleistocene, Fort Myers, Florida. 17021: Diploria strigosa (coelenterate), Pleistocene, Miami olite,
Florida Keys.
17022: Siderastrea sp. (coelenterate), Pleistocene, Miami olite, Florida Keys.
17027: Pecten sp., Pleistocene, Florida.
17029: Aequipecten circularis, Pliocene, Kettleman Hills, California. 17030: Pecten bellus, Pliocene, Santa Barbara, Califomia.
17031: Chlamys eboreus, Pliocene, Myrtle Beach, South Carolina. 17032 : Pecten byramensis, Oligocene, Vicksburg, Mississippi. 17033: Pecten texanus, Cretaceous, Tarrant County, Texas.
V7034: Ornithopod dinosaur egg-shells, Cretaceous, Bassin d'Aix-en- Provence, Roques Hautes, France.
V7035: Sauropod dinosaur egg-shells, Cretaceous, Bassin d' Aix-en- Provence, Trets, France.
V7036: Theropod dinosaur egg-shells, Cretaceous, Bassin d' Aix-en- Provence, Rousset, France.
17046: Argopecten alquisulcatus, Pleistocene, San Pedro, Califomia. 17048: Pecten bellus, Pleistocene, Coyote Hills, Califomia.
17049: Pecten eldridgei, Pleistocene, McKittrick County, Califomia. 17050: Pecten latiauratus, Pleistocene, P1aya del Rey, Califomia. 17074: Arca pacifica, Recent, San Felipe, Baja Califomia, Mexico.
17080: Chione gnidia, Pleistocene, Huatabampito, Sinaloa, Mexico. 1711: Pinctada sp., Recent, Japan.