Dinoglyphs - Prehistoric Creatures Documented by the Ancient Man

Evolution of Playstation

Descent of Playstation Logos

Playstation versions and models in a historical timeline

Manufacturer Sony Computer Entertainment
Product family PlayStation
Type Video game console
Generation Fifth generation era
Retail availability PlayStation
JP December 3, 1994[1]
NA September 9, 1995[2]
EU September 29, 1995[3]
AUS November 15, 1995[4]
JP July 7, 2000
NA September 19, 2000
EU September 2000
Discontinued March 23, 2006
Units sold 102 million (as of July 20, 2008)[5]
Units shipped 102.49 million, including 28.15 million PS one units (as of March 31, 2005)[6]
Media CD-ROM
CPU MIPS R3000A-family R3051
@ 33.8688 MHz
Storage capacity Memory card
Best-selling game Gran Turismo, 10.85 million shipped (as of April 30, 2008)[7][8]
Successor PlayStation 2
The PlayStation (abbreviated PS, PSone,[9] PS1. Nicknamed PSX (not to be confused with the PSX DVR, released in 2003)) is a 32-bit fifth-generation video game console first released by Sony Computer Entertainment in Japan on December 3, 1994.[1]

The PlayStation was the first of PlayStation series of console and handheld game devices. Successor consoles and upgrades include the Net Yaroze, PS one, PSX, PocketStation, PlayStation 2, PlayStation Portable,and the PlayStation 3.[10] The PlayStation was the first "computer entertainment platform" to ship 100 million units, which it had reached 9 years and 6 months after its initial launch.[11]

An original PlayStation control pad. This model was later replaced by the Dual Analog, and then the DualShock.The first conceptions of the PlayStation date back to 1986 in Japan where it was created. Nintendo had been attempting to work with disc technology since the Famicom, but the medium had problems. Its rewritable magnetic nature could be easily erased (thus leading to a lack of durability), and the discs were a copyright infringement danger. Consequently, when details of CDROM/XA (an extension of the CD-ROM format that combines compressed audio, visual, and computer data, allowing all to be accessed simultaneously) came out, Nintendo was interested. CD-ROM/XA was being simultaneously developed by Sony and Philips. Nintendo approached Sony to develop a CD-ROM add-on, tentatively titled the "SNES-CD". A contract was signed, and work began. Nintendo's choice of Sony was due to a prior dealing: Ken Kutaragi, the person who would later be dubbed "The Father of the PlayStation", was the individual who had sold Nintendo on using the Sony SPC-700 processor for use as the eight-channel ADPCM sound synthesis set in the Super Famicom/SNES console through an impressive demonstration of the processor's capabilities.[12]

Sony also planned to develop a Super Famicom-compatible, Sony-branded console, but one which would be more of a home entertainment system playing both Super Nintendo cartridges and a new CD format which Sony would design. This was also to be the format used in SNES-CD discs, giving a large degree of control to Sony despite Nintendo's leading position in the video gaming market.

The DualShock controller.The SNES-CD was to be announced at the May 1991 Consumer Electronics Show (CES). However, when Hiroshi Yamauchi read the original 1988 contract between Sony and Nintendo, he realized that the earlier agreement essentially handed Sony complete control over any and all titles written on the SNES CD-ROM format. Yamauchi decided that the contract was totally unacceptable and he secretly canceled all plans for the joint Nintendo-Sony SNES CD attachment. Instead of announcing a partnership between Sony and Nintendo, at 9 a.m. the day of the CES, Nintendo chairman Howard Lincoln stepped onto the stage and revealed that Nintendo was now allied with Philips, and Nintendo was planning on abandoning all the previous work Nintendo and Sony had accomplished. Lincoln and Minoru Arakawa had, unbeknownst to Sony, flown to Philips headquarters in Europe and formed an alliance of a decidedly different nature熔ne that would give Nintendo total control over its licenses on Philips machines.

After the collapse of the joint project, Sony considered halting their research, but ultimately the company decided to use what they had developed so far and make it into a complete, stand-alone console. As a result, Nintendo filed a lawsuit claiming breach of contract and attempted, in US federal court, to obtain an injunction against the release of the PlayStation, on the grounds that Nintendo owned the name. The federal judge presiding over the case denied the injunction and, in October 1991, the first incarnation of the new PlayStation was revealed. However, it is theorized that only 200 or so of these machines were ever produced.[citation needed]

PlayStation Memory Card.By the end of 1992, Sony and Nintendo reached a deal whereby the "PlayStation" would still have a port for SNES games, but Nintendo would own the rights and receive the bulk of the profits from the games, and the SNES would continue to use the Sony-designed audio chip. However, Sony decided in early 1993 to begin reworking the "PlayStation" concept to target a new generation of hardware and software. As part of this process the SNES cartridge port was dropped and the space between the names was removed, thereby ending Nintendo's involvement with the project.

The PlayStation was launched in Japan on December 3, 1994, North America on September 9, 1995,[2] Europe on September 29, 1995,[3] and Oceania in November 15, 1995.[4] The launch price in the American market was US$299[2] (a price point later used by its successor, the PlayStation 2),[13] and Sony enjoyed a very successful launch with titles of almost every genre, including Battle Arena Toshinden, Warhawk, Air Combat, Philosoma and Ridge Racer. Almost all of Sony's and Namco's launch titles went on to spawn numerous sequels.

The PlayStation console possesses a number of features, in addition to playing games, has the ability to read and play audio CDs. The CD player has the ability to shuffle the playback order, play the songs in a programmed order, and repeat one song or the entire disk. This function, as well as a memory card manager, can be accessed by starting the console without inserting a game, thereby accessing a system menu. The original PlayStation and PSone menus differ: the PlayStation menu has a dark blue background and buttons that are designed like rainbow graffiti, the PSone has a blocked gray background with 2 icons, one with 2 memory cards on it, the other with a keyboard and some notes. If a game is put in the system at any time on the menu, the game will immediately start.

See also: Chronology of PlayStation games and List of PlayStation 1 games
As of September 30, 2007, a total of 7,918 software titles have been released worldwide (counting games released in multiple regions as separate titles).[14] As of March 31, 2007, the cumulative software shipment was at 962 million units.[15] The very last game for the system released in the United States was FIFA Football 2005. However, it can be noted that on 07/26/07 in Japan and 03/18/08 in the US, Metal Gear Solid: The Essential Collection was released which contained new printings of the PlayStation 1 game Metal Gear Solid. The discs were in the PlayStation format and playable on the PlayStation and PS One.[16]

The OK and Cancel buttons on most of the Japanese PlayStation games are reversed in their North American and European releases. In Japan, the button (maru, right) is used as the OK button, while the button (batsu, wrong) is used as Cancel. North American and European releases have the button or the buttons as the OK button, while either the or the buttons are used as Cancel (some titles like Xenogears used the button for cancelling actions and selections, along with the PlayStation 2 system browser and the XrossMedia Bar on the PlayStation 3 and the PSP). However, a few games such as Squaresoft's Vagrant Story, Final Fantasy VII (with the button was used for the cancel button), and Final Fantasy Tactics, Namco's Ridge Racer Type 4 and Konami's Metal Gear Solid, have the buttons remain in the same Japanese configurational layout. Some games like Japanese version of Gran Turismo had used different control similar to North American games. These Japanese button layouts still apply to other PlayStation consoles, such as the PlayStation Portable (PSP), PlayStation 2, and the PlayStation 3. This is because in the early years Sony America (SCEA), Sony Europe (SCEE), and Sony Japan (SCEJ) had different development and testing documents (TRCs) for their respective territories.

 Production Run
Lasting over 11 years, the PlayStation had one of the longest production runs in the video game industry. On March 23, 2006, Sony announced the end of production.

Developer's kit PlayStation (PAL)The PlayStation went through a number of variants during its production run, each accompanied by a change in the part number. From an external perspective, the most notable change was the gradual reduction in the number of external connectors on the unit. This started very early on葉he original Japanese launch units (SCPH-1000) had an S-Video port, which was removed on the next release. This also led to the strange situation where the US and European launch units had the same part number series (SCPH-100x) as the Japanese launch units, but had different hardware (Rev. C silicon and no S-Video port)葉hey were the same as the Japanese SCPH-3000, so for consistency should have been SCPH-3001 and SCPH-3002 (this numbering was used for the Yaroze machines, which were based on the same hardware and numbered DTL-H3000, DTL-H3001, and DTL-H3002). Also, the first models (DTL-H1000, DTL-H1001, DTL-H1002) had some problems with printf function and developers had to use another function instead. This series of machines had a reputation for CD drive problems葉he optical pickup sled was made of thermoplastic, and eventually developed wear spots that moved the laser into a position where it was no longer parallel with the CD surface預 modification was made that replaced the sled with a die-cast one with hard nylon inserts, which corrected the problem.

With the release of the next series (SCPH-500x), the numbers moved back into sync. A number of changes were made to the unit internally (CD drive relocated, shielding simplified, PSU wiring simplified) and the RCA jacks and RFU power connectors were removed from the rear panel. This series also contained the SCPH-550x and SCPH-555x units, but these appear to have been bundle changes rather than actual hardware revisions.

These were followed by the SCPH-700x and SCHP-750x series葉hey are externally identical to the SCPH-500x machines, but have internal changes made to reduce manufacturing costs (for example, the system RAM went from 4 chips to 1, and the CD controller went from 3 chips to 1).

The final revision to the original PlayStation was the SCPH-900x series葉hese had the same hardware as the SCPH-750x machines with the exception of the removal of the parallel port and a slight reduction in the size of the PCB. The removal of the parallel port was probably partly because no official add-on had ever been released for it, and partly because it was being used to connect cheat cartridges that could be used to defeat the copy protection.

The PS one was based on substantially the same hardware as the SCPH-750x and 900x, but had the serial port removed, the controller / memory card ports moved to the main PCB and the power supply replaced with a DC-DC converter that was also on the main PCB.

With the early units, many gamers experienced skipping full-motion video or dreaded physical "ticking" noises coming from their PlayStations. The problem appears to have come from poorly placed vents leading to overheating in some environments葉he plastic moldings inside the console would warp very slightly and create knock-on effects with the laser assembly. The solution was to ensure the console was sat on a surface which dissipated heat efficiently in a well vented area, or raise the unit up slightly by propping something at its edges. A common fix for already affected consoles was to turn the PlayStation sideways or upside-down (thereby using gravity to cancel the effects of the warped interior) although some gamers smacked the lid of the PlayStation to make a game load or work.

Earliest series had potentiometers on the board for adjusting the reading mechanism, named BIAS, GAIN and an unknown one. By connecting a voltmeter between the upper-most metering point near the BIAS potentiometer and the chassis, the resulting voltage could be read. The supposed right values are 1.70V when a CD is spinning at 1x speed and 1.85V when a CD is spinning at 2x speed. Further tuning was also possible on the unique potentiometer present on the CD drive. Later series featured an automatic laser calibration mechanism.

Sony then released a version dubbed "Dual Shock", which included a controller with two analog sticks and a built-in vibration-feedback feature.

Another version that was colored blue (as opposed to regular console units that were grey in color) was available to game developers and select press. Later versions of this were colored green熔n a technical level, these units were almost identical to the retail units, but had a different CD controller in them that did not require the region code found on all pressed disks, since they were intended to be used with CD-R media for debugging. This also allowed the use of discs from different regions, but this was not officially supported; different debug stations existed for each region. The two different color cases were not cosmetic葉he original blue debug station (DTL-H100x, DTL-H110x) contained "Revision B" silicon, the same as the early retail units (these units had silicon errata that needed software workarounds), the green units (DTL-H120x) had Rev. C hardware. As part of the required tests, the user had to test the title on both. Contrary to popular belief, the RAM was the same as the retail units at 2 MB. The firmware was nearly identical葉he only significant change was that debug printf()s got sent to the serial port if the title didn't open it for communications葉his used a DTL-H3050 serial cable (the same as the one used for the Yaroze).

Another version (SCPH-5903) was also produced that had the ability to play VCDs葉his was only sold in Asia, since that format never really caught on anywhere else. From a developer perspective, the white PlayStation could be treated exactly like any other NTSC:J PlayStation.

 "Chipped" consoles
The installation of a modchip allowed the PlayStation's capabilities to be expanded, and several options were made available. By the end of the system's life cycle almost anyone with minimal soldering experience was able to realize the modification of the console. Such a modification allowed the playing of games from other regions, such as PAL titles on a NTSC console, or allowed the ability to play copies of original games without restriction. Modchips allow the playing of games recorded on a regular CD-R. This created a wave of games developed without official approval using free, unofficial tools, as well as the reproduction of original discs. With the introduction of such devices the console was very attractive to programmers and illegal copiers alike.

A previous theory was that anyone seeking to create copies of games that would work correctly faced several issues at the time, as the discs that were produced by Sony were designed to be difficult to copy and impossible to copy on recordable media. Discs were manufactured with a black-colored plastic (transparent only to the infrared radiation used by CD-ROM lasers), and it was theorized that the PlayStation's drive was engineered to require these tinted discs. However, this has been easily disproven, as PlayStation CD-ROMs can be read by most CD drives, and the PlayStation will read most recordable CDs. Nonetheless, the discs were mastered with a specific wobble in the lead-in area. This wobble encodes a four-character sequence which is checked by the CD-ROM drive's controller chip. The drive will only accept the disc if the code is correct. This string varies depending on the region of the disk"SCEI" for NTSC:J machines, "SCEA" for NTSC:U/C machines, "SCEE" for PAL machines and "SCEW" for the Net Yaroze. Since the tracking pattern is pressed into the disc at the time of manufacture, this cannot be reproduced on a CD-R recorder. Some companies (notably Datel) did manage to produce discs that booted on unmodified retail units, but this required special equipment and can only be done with "pressed" discs. However, inexpensive modchips were created that simply injected the code to the appropriate connections to the controller chip, which provided an easy way of bypassing these measures. The other issue is that most PC drives used Mode 1 or Mode 2/Form 1 (2048 bytes/sector) and the PlayStation uses a mixed-mode format with most data in Mode 2/Form 1 and streaming audio/video data in Mode 2/Form 2, which most CD-R drives at the time could not handle well. Newer drives were able to correctly handle these variations.

The creation and mass-production of these inexpensive modchips, coupled with their ease of installation, marked the beginning of widespread console videogame copyright infringement. Also, CD burners were made available around this time. Prior to the PlayStation, the reproduction of copyrighted material for gaming consoles was restricted to either enthusiasts with exceptional technical ability, or others that had access to CD manufacturers. With this console, amateurs could replicate anything Sony was producing for a mere fraction of the MSRP.

 Swap Trick
On earliest series, SCPH-100X and SCPH-3000, it was possible to launch games burned on CD-R without any mod-chip. The trick consisted in starting the console with no game, then going to the CD player application. After inserting an original game, using a small object like a match or a spring, make the lid contactor go down to simulate a closed lid. The CD would spin up and stop, after it was exchanged by another game this time burned on a CD-R. After exiting the CD player application, the PlayStation loads the game thinking it's an original CD. On later series, this trick was defeated, though it was still possible to realise a double-swap which consisted of launching an original game, the two times the CD-ROM spins to 2x speed and lowers to 1x speed, the original game was exchanged by a copy, twice. This defeated the tighter verifications on newer series, but at a price of wearing out the CD-ROM motor. A third method is to load a "GameShark" CD, swap discs (keeping the lid switch down), and start the game through the GameShark's menu.

 Net Yaroze
A version of the PlayStation called the Net Yaroze was also produced. It was more expensive than the original PlayStation, colored black instead of the usual gray, and most importantly, came with tools and instructions that allowed a user to be able to program PlayStation games and applications without the need for a full developer suite, which cost many times the amount of a PlayStation and was only available to approved video game developers. Naturally, the Net Yaroze lacked many of the features the full developer suite provided. Programmers were also limited by the 2 MB of total game space that Net Yaroze allowed. The amount of space may seem small, but games like Ridge Racer ran entirely from the system RAM (except for the streamed music tracks). It was unique in that it was the only officially retailed PlayStation with no regional lockout; it would play games from any territory. It would not however play CD-R discs, so it was not possible to create self-booting Yaroze games without a modified PlayStation.

 PS one
The redesigned PSone with an LCD Screen and DualShock controllerThe PS one (also PSOne), launched in 2000, is Sony's smaller, redesigned version of its PlayStation video game console. The PS one is considerably smaller than the original PlayStation (dimensions being 38 mm ラ 193 mm ラ 144 mm versus 45 mm ラ 260 mm ラ 185 mm). It was released on July 7, 2000,[17] and went on to outsell all other consoles擁ncluding Sony's own brand-new PlayStation 2葉hroughout the remainder of the year.[18] Sony also released a small LCD screen and an adaptor to power the unit for use in cars. The PS one is fully compatible with all PlayStation software. There were three differences between the "PS One" and the original, the first one being cosmetic change to the console, the second one was the home menu's Graphical User Interface, and the third being added protection against the modchip by changing the internal layout and making previous-generation modchip devices unusable. The PS one also lacks the original PlayStation's parallel and serial ports. The serial port allowed multiple consoles to be connected for multiplayer or for connecting a console to debugging software.

 Summary of PlayStation models
The last digit of the PlayStation model number denotes the region in which it was sold:

0 is Japan (Japanese boot ROM, NTSC:J region, NTSC Video, 100V PSU)
1 is USA/Canada (English boot ROM, NTSC:U/C region, NTSC Video, 110V PSU)
2 is Europe/PAL (English boot ROM, PAL region, PAL Video, 220V PSU)
3 is Asia (Japanese boot ROM, NTSC:J region, NTSC video, 220V PSU)
 Consumer models
Model: Case: BIOS: Hardware: Region: A/V Direct Out: Parallel Port: Serial Port: Sound Scope: Notes:
SCPH-1000 Original (Grey) Unknown (09/22/94) Rev. A NTSC-J Yes Yes Yes No FMV skipping issues. S-Video direct out.
SCPH-1001 Original (Grey) 2.2 (12/04/95) Rev. B NTSC-U/C Yes Yes Yes No FMV skipping issues.
Based on SCPH-3000 series.
SCPH-1002 Original (Grey) 2.0 (05/10/95) Rev. B PAL Yes Yes Yes No
SCPH-1002 Original (Grey) 2.1 (07/17/95) Rev. B PAL Yes Yes Yes No
SCPH-1002 Original (Grey) 2.2 (12/04/95) Rev. B PAL Yes Yes Yes No
SCPH-3000 Original (Grey) 1.1 (01/22/95) Rev. B NTSC-J Yes Yes Yes No FMV skipping issues. Earliest units had a PU-7 board, further units featured a PU-8 board like SCPH-1002.
SCPH-3500 Original (Grey) 2.1 (07/17/95) Rev. B NTSC-J Yes Yes Yes No FMV skipping issues.
SCPH-5000 Original (Grey) 2.2 (12/04/95) Rev. C NTSC-J No Yes Yes No CD-ROM drive re-located on right side of CD bay.
Lens carriage reinforced and power simplified, fixing FMV skipping issues.
A/V direct out and RFU power connector removed.
Model numbers synchronized worldwide.

A very rare Men in Black promotional model exists with a black case and the film's logo on the CD lid.

Only model capable of playing Video CD movies.
This model also has RCA plugs, like earlier PlayStation models.
SCPH-5001 Original (Grey) Unknown (Unknown) Rev. C NTSC-U/C No Yes Yes No
SCPH-5002 Original (Grey) Unknown (Unknown) Rev. C PAL No Yes Yes No
SCPH-5003 Original (Grey) Unknown (Unknown) Rev. C NTSC-J No Yes Yes No
SCPH-5500 Original (Grey) 3.0 (09/09/96) Rev. C NTSC-J No Yes Yes No
SCPH-5501 Original (Grey) 3.0 (11/18/96) Rev. C NTSC-U/C No Yes Yes No
SCPH-5502 Original (Grey) 3.0 (01/06/97) Rev. C PAL No Yes Yes No
SCPH-5503 Original (Grey) Unknown (Unknown) Rev. C NTSC-J No Yes Yes No
SCPH-5552 Original (Grey) 3.0 (01/06/97) Rev. C PAL No Yes Yes No
SCPH-5903 Original (White) Unknown (Unknown) Rev. C NTSC-J Yes Yes Yes No
SCPH-7000 Original (Grey) 4.0 (08/18/97) Rev. C NTSC-J No Yes Yes Yes DualShock now standard.
Introduction of Sound Scope.
Major manufacturing cost reductions took place from this model onwards.
The number of memory chips and CD-ROM controllers were reduced, other components were simplified.

SCPH-7000, SCPH-7001, and SCPH-7002:
Available in midnight blue as promotional item to celebrate the 10 millionth PlayStation sold.
SCPH-7001 Original (Grey) 4.1 (12/16/97) Rev. C NTSC-U/C No Yes Yes Yes
SCPH-7002 Original (Grey) 4.1 (12/16/97) Rev. C PAL No Yes Yes Yes
SCPH-7003 Original (Grey) 3.0 (11/18/96) Rev. C NTSC-J No Yes Yes Yes
SCPH-7500 Original (Grey) Unknown (Unknown) Rev. C NTSC-J No Yes Yes Yes
SCPH-7501 Original (Grey) 4.1 (12/16/97) Rev. C NTSC-U/C No Yes Yes Yes
SCPH-7502 Original (Grey) 4.1 (12/16/97) Rev. C PAL No Yes Yes Yes
SCPH-7503 Original (Grey) 4.1 (12/16/97) Rev. C NTSC-J No Yes Yes Yes
SCPH-9000 Original (Grey) 4.0 (08/18/97) Rev. C NTSC-J No No Yes Yes Parallel port removed.
Motherboard PCB reduced in size.
SCPH-9001 Original (Grey) 4.1 (12/16/97) Rev. C NTSC-U/C No No Yes Yes
SCPH-9002 Original (Grey) 4.1 (12/16/97) Rev. C PAL No No Yes Yes
SCPH-9003 Original (Grey) Unknown (Unknown) Rev. C NTSC-J No No Yes Yes
SCPH-100 PS one (White) 4.3 (03/11/00) Rev. C NTSC-J No No No Yes Redesigned smaller case.
Controller and memory card ports integrated onto motherboard.
Serial port removed.
Has external power supply.
SCPH-101 PS one (White) 4.5 (05/25/00) Rev. C NTSC-U/C No No No Yes
SCPH-102 PS one (White) 4.4 (03/24/00) Rev. C PAL No No No Yes
SCPH-102 PS one (White) 4.5 (05/25/00) Rev. C PAL No No No Yes
SCPH-103 PS one (White) Unknown (Unknown) Rev. C NTSC-J No No No Yes

 Speciality models
Model: Case: BIOS: Hardware: Region: A/V Direct Out: Parallel Port: Serial Port: Sound Scope: Notes:
DTL-H1000 Original (Blue) Unknown (09/22/94) Rev. A NTSC-J Yes Yes Yes No Low quality CD-ROM drive. S-Video direct out. Debugger. Can boot games from any region and CD-R copies.
DTL-H1000H Original (Grey) 1.1 (01/22/95) Rev. B NTSC-J Yes Yes Yes No Low quality CD-ROM drive. Debugger. Can boot games from any region and CD-R copies.
DTL-H1001 Original (Blue) 2.0 (05/07/95) Rev. B NTSC-U/C Yes Yes Yes No Low quality CD-ROM drive. Debugger. Can boot games from any region and CD-R copies.
DTL-H1001H Original (Grey) Unknown (Unknown) Rev. B NTSC-U/C Yes Yes Yes No Low quality CD-ROM drive. Debugger. Can boot games from any region and CD-R copies.
DTL-H1002 Original (Blue) 2.0 (05/10/95) Rev. B PAL Yes Yes Yes No Low quality CD-ROM drive. Debugger. Can boot games from any region and CD-R copies.
DTL-H1100 Original (Blue) 2.2 (03/06/96) Rev. B NTSC-J Yes Yes Yes No Low quality CD-ROM drive. Debugger. Can boot games from any region and CD-R copies. Has external power supply.
DTL-H1101 Original (Blue) 2.1 (07/17/95) Rev. B NTSC-U/C Yes Yes Yes No Low quality CD-ROM drive. Debugger. Can boot games from any region and CD-R copies. Has external power supply.
DTL-H1102 Original (Blue) 2.1 (07/17/95) Rev. B PAL Yes Yes Yes No Low quality CD-ROM drive. Debugger. Can boot games from any region and CD-R copies. Has external power supply.
DTL-H1200 Original (Green) 2.2 (12/04/95) Rev. C NTSC-J Yes Yes Yes No Low quality CD-ROM drive. Debugger. Can boot games from any region and CD-R copies. Will not display PAL video mode.
DTL-H1201 Original (Green) 2.2 (12/04/95) Rev. C NTSC-U/C Yes Yes Yes No Low quality CD-ROM drive. Debugger. Can boot games from any region and CD-R copies. Will not display PAL video mode.
DTL-H1202 Original (Green) 2.2 (12/04/95) Rev. C PAL Yes Yes Yes No Low quality CD-ROM drive. Debugger. Can boot games from any region and CD-R copies. Will not display NTSC video mode.
DTL-H3000 Original (Black) Unknown (Unknown) Rev. B NTSC-J Yes Yes Yes No Low quality CD-ROM drive. Net Yaroze hobbyist development system. Can boot games from any region but not CD-R copies.
DTL-H3001 Original (Black) 2.2 (12/04/95) Rev. B NTSC-U/C Yes Yes Yes No Low quality CD-ROM drive. Net Yaroze hobbyist development system. Can boot games from any region but not CD-R copies.
DTL-H3002 Original (Black) 2.2 (12/04/95) Rev. B PAL Yes Yes Yes No Low quality CD-ROM drive. Net Yaroze hobbyist development system. Can boot games from any region but not CD-R copies.

Sony's successor to the PlayStation is the PlayStation 2, which is backwards compatible with its predecessor in that it can play almost every PlayStation game. Unlike emulators that run on a PC, the PlayStation 2 actually contains the original PlayStation processor, allowing games to run exactly as they do on the PlayStation. For PlayStation 2 games this processor, called the IOP, is used for input and output (memory cards, DVD drive, network, and hard drive). Like its predecessor, the PlayStation 2 is based on hardware developed internally by Sony.

The third generation of the PlayStation known as the PlayStation 3 (abbreviated PS3), was launched on November 11, 2006 in Japan, November 17, 2006 in North America, and March 23, 2007 in Europe. The PlayStation 3 was initially backward compatible with all games that were originally made for the PlayStation and PlayStation 2, but due to the removal of the PlayStation 2 Emotion Engine Chip after the introduction of the 40 GB version, the capability to play PlayStation 2 discs is limited now to software emulation, and the capability to play original PlayStation games is still possible. While PS3 games are not region-locked, PlayStation and PlayStation 2 games still only play on a PS3 console from the same territory. The redesigned "Slim" form factor PS3 introduced in 2009 has had the ability to play PlayStation 2 games entirely removed, though it can still play games from the original PlayStation.

The PlayStation Portable (abbreviated PSP) is a handheld game console first released in late 2004. The PSP is capable of playing PlayStation games downloaded via Sony's online store, and can also play any PlayStation game by using the PlayStation 3's remote play feature while the disc in the PlayStation 3. Sony hopes to release nearly all PlayStation games on a gradual basis.[19] It is also possible to convert original PlayStation disc images into executable binaries using freely available software. These games are then playable on PSPs that have been modified to run unsigned code.

An original PlayStation 2
An original PlayStation 3.
A 1000 series PlayStation Portable

The success of the PlayStation is widely believed to have influenced the demise of the cartridge-based home console. While not the first system to utilize an optical disc format, it was the first success story, and ended up going head-to-head with the last major home console to rely on proprietary cartridges葉he Nintendo 64.

Nintendo was very public about its skepticism toward using CDs and DVDs to store games, citing longer load times and durability issues. It was widely speculated that the company was even more concerned with copyright infringement, given its substantial reliance on licensing and exclusive titles for its revenue.

The increasing complexity of games (in content, graphics, and sound) pushed cartridges to their storage limits and this fact began to turn off third party developers. Also, CDs were appealing to publishers due to the fact that they could be produced at a significantly lower cost and offered more flexibility (it was easy to change production to meet demand). In turn, they were able to pass the lower costs onto consumers.

 Quality of construction
The first batch of PlayStations used a KSM-440AAM laser unit whose case and all movable parts were completely made out of plastic. Over time, friction caused the plastic tray to wear out蓉sually unevenly. The placement of the laser unit close to the power supply accelerated wear because of the additional heat, which made the plastic even more vulnerable to friction. Eventually, the tray would become so worn that the laser no longer pointed directly at the CD and games would no longer load. Sony eventually fixed the problem by making the tray out of die-cast metal and placing the laser unit farther away from the power supply on later models of the PlayStation.

Some units, particularly the early 100x models, would be unable to play FMV or music correctly, resulting in skipping or freezing. In more extreme cases the PlayStation would only work correctly when turned onto its side or upside down.

 Technical specifications
 Central processing unit
R3051[citation needed]
MIPS R3000A-compatible 32bit RISC chip running at 33.8688 MHz
The chip is manufactured by LSI Logic Corp. with technology licensed from SGI.
Operating performance of 30 MIPS
Bus bandwidth 132 MB/s
4 KB Instruction Cache
1 KB non-associative SRAM Data Cache
2 MB of main RAM
Geometry transformation engine[citation needed]
Resides inside the main CPU chip, giving it additional vector math instructions used for 3D graphics
Operating performance of 66 MIPS
360,000 flat-shaded polygons per second
180,000 texture mapped and light-sourced polygons per second
Theoretical polygon count in optimal conditions given by Sony:
1 million flat-shaded polygons per second;
500,000 texture mapped and light-sourced polygons per second.
Data decompression engine[citation needed]
Also residing within the main CPU, it is responsible for decompressing images and video.
Documented device mode is to read three RLE-encoded 16ラ16 macroblocks, run IDCT and assemble a single 16ラ16 RGB macroblock.
Output data may be transferred directly to GPU via DMA.
It is possible to overwrite IDCT matrix and some additional parameters, however MDEC internal instruction set was never documented.
Compatible with MJPEG and H.261 files
Operating Performance of 80 MIPS
Directly connected to CPU Bus

An early PlayStation motherboard. Graphics processing unit
Name unknown[citation needed]
Handles 2D graphics processing separate from the main 3D engine on the CPU
Maximum of 16.7 million colors (24-bit color depth)
Resolutions from 256x224 to 640x480
Adjustable frame buffer
Unlimited color lookup tables
Maximum of 4000 8x8 pixel sprites with individual scaling and rotation
Emulation of simultaneous backgrounds (for parallax scrolling)
Flat or Gouraud shading and texture mapping
1 MB of VRAM
 Sound processing unit
Name unknown[citation needed]
Supports ADPCM sources with up to 24 channels
Sampling rate of up to 44.1 kHz
512 KB of memory
CD-ROM drive[citation needed]
2x, with a maximum data throughput of 300 KB/s
XA Mode 2 Compliant
CD-DA (CD-Digital Audio)
32 KB buffer
Operation System[citation needed]
Stored on 512 KB ROM
Memory Card[citation needed]
128 KB of space in an EEPROM

Sony PlayStation portal
List of PlayStation 1 games
PlayStation Demo Discs
PlayStation Sound Format
PlayStation palmar hidradenitis

^ a b "Business Development/Japan". Sony Computer Entertainment Inc. http://www.scei.co.jp/corporate/data/bizdatajpn_e.html. Retrieved 2007-12-19.
^ a b c "Business Development/North America". Sony Computer Entertainment Inc. http://www.scei.co.jp/corporate/data/bizdatausa_e.html. Retrieved 2007-12-19.
^ a b "Business Development/Europe". Sony Computer Entertainment. http://www.scei.co.jp/corporate/data/bizdataeu_e.html. Retrieved 2007-12-19.
^ a b "SCEE 1995揖ey Facts and Figures". Sony Computer Entertainment. http://www.scee.presscentre.com/Content/Detail.asp?ReleaseID=93&NewsAreaID=22. Retrieved 2006-11-25.
^ Chris Nuttall (2008-07-20). "Sony sets 150m sales target for PS3". Financial Times. http://www.ft.com/cms/s/1c46ad2e-5678-11dd-8686-000077b07658.html. Retrieved 2008-07-21.
^ "PlayStation Cumulative Production Shipments of Hardware". Sony Computer Entertainment. http://www.scei.co.jp/corporate/data/bizdataps_e.html. Retrieved 2007-09-05.
^ Sony Computer Entertainment (2008-05-09). "Gran Turismo Series Shipment Exceeds 50 Million Units Worldwide". Press release. http://asia.playstation.com/eng_hk/index.php?q=node/1517. Retrieved 2008-06-03.
^ ""Gran Turismo" Series Software Title List". Polyphony Digital. April 2008. http://www.polyphony.co.jp/english/list.html. Retrieved 2008-06-03.
^ See #PS one
^ Sinclair, Brendan (2006-03-24). "Sony stops making original PS". GameSpot. http://www.gamespot.com/news/6146549.html. Retrieved 2009-08-20.
^ Sony Computer Entertainment (2005-11-30). "PlayStation 2 Breaks Record as the Fastest Computer Entertainment Platform to Reach Cumulative Shipment of 100 Million Units" (PDF). Press release. http://www.scei.co.jp/corporate/release/pdf/051130e.pdf. Retrieved 2008-06-08.
^ "Game Over", by David Scheff
^ "PlayStation 2 Timeline". GameSpy. http://archive.gamespy.com/articles/february04/ps2timeline/index3.shtml. Retrieved 2007-07-10.
^ "Cumulative Software Titles". Sony Computer Entertainment Inc.. http://www.scei.co.jp/corporate/data/bizdatatitle_e.html. Retrieved 2007-12-10.
^ "Cumulative Production Shipments of Software Titles". Sony Computer Entertainment. 2007-03-31. http://www.scei.co.jp/corporate/data/bizdatapssoft_e.html. Retrieved 2007-07-10.
^ http://www.gamefaqs.com/console/ps2/data/944753.html Gamefaqs Product page
^ "SCEE 2000揖ey Facts and Figures". Sony Computer Entertainment Europe. http://www.scee.presscentre.com/Content/Detail.asp?ReleaseID=98&NewsAreaID=22. Retrieved 2006-11-25.
^ Smith, Tony (2000-12-06). "Sony PS One sales rocket as PS Two famine continues". theregister.co.uk. http://www.theregister.co.uk/2000/12/06/sony_ps_one_sales_rocket/. Retrieved 2008-08-22.
^ Gantayat, Anoop (2006-03-15). "Sony Outlines PSP Future". IGN. http://psp.ign.com/articles/696/696079p1.html. Retrieved 2007-07-10.

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