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MBTI - Myers-Briggs Type Indicator


ESFP (Extraversion, Sensing, Feeling, Perception) is an abbreviation used in the publications of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) to refer to one of the sixteen personality types.[1] The MBTI assessment was developed from the work of prominent psychiatrist Carl G. Jung in his book Psychological Types. Jung proposed a psychological typology based on the theories of cognitive functions that he developed through his clinical observations.

From Jung's work, others developed psychological typologies. Jungian personality assessments include the MBTI instrument, developed by Isabel Briggs Myers and Katharine Cook Briggs, and the Keirsey Temperament Sorter (KTS), developed by David Keirsey. Keirsey referred to ESFPs as Performers, one of the four types belonging to the temperament he called the Artisan. ESFPs account for about 4–10% of the population.[2][3]

The MBTI instrument

The MBTI preferences indicate the differences in people based on the following:[4]

By using their preference in each of these areas, people develop what Jung and Myers called psychological type. This underlying personality pattern results from the dynamic interaction of their four preferences, in conjunction with environmental influences and their own individual tendencies. People are likely to develop behaviors, skills, and attitudes based on their particular type. Each personality type has its own potential strengths as well as areas that offer opportunities for growth.

The MBTI tool consists of multiple choice questions that sort respondents on the basis of the four "dichotomies" (pairs of psychological opposites). Sixteen different outcomes are possible, each identified by its own four-letter code, referred to by initial letters. (N is used for iNtuition, to differentiate it from Introversion). The MBTI is approximately 75% accurate according to its own manual.[5]

Characteristics of ESFPs

Type description

ESFPs live in the moment, experiencing life to the fullest. They enjoy people, as well as material comforts. Rarely allowing conventions to interfere with their lives, they find creative ways to meet human needs. ESFPs are excellent team players, focused on completing the task at hand with maximum fun and minimum discord. Active types, they find pleasure in new experiences.

ESFPs take a hands-on approach in most things. Because they learn more by doing than by studying or reading, they tend to rush into things, learning by interacting with their environment. They usually dislike theory and written explanations. Traditional schools can be difficult for ESFPs, although they tend to do well when the subject of study interests them, or when they see the relevance of a subject and are allowed to interact with people.

Observant, practical, realistic, and specific, ESFPs make decisions according to their own personal standards. They use their Feeling judgment internally to identify and empathize with others. Naturally attentive to the world around them, ESFPs are keen observers of human behavior. They quickly sense what is happening with other people and immediately respond to their individual needs. They are especially good at mobilizing people to deal with crises. Generous, optimistic, and persuasive, they are good at interpersonal interactions. They often play the role of peacemaker due to their warm, sympathetic, and tactful nature.

ESFPs love being around people and having new experiences. Living in the here-and-now, they often do not think about long term effects or the consequences of their actions. While very practical, they generally despise routines, instead desiring to 'go with the flow.' They are, in fact, very play minded. Because ESFPs learn better through hands-on experience, classroom learning may be troublesome for many of them, especially those with a very underdeveloped intuitive side. [4]

How Others May Perceive ESFPs

Others usually see ESFPs as resourceful and supportive, as well as gregarious, playful, and spontaneous. ESFPs get a lot of satisfaction out of life and are fun to be around. Their exuberance and enthusiasm draw others to them. They are flexible, adaptable, congenial, and easygoing. They seldom plan ahead, trusting their ability to respond in the moment and deal effectively with whatever presents itself. They dislike structure and routine and will generally find ways to bend the rules.[4]

Potential Areas for Growth

Sometimes life circumstances do not support ESFPs in the development and expression of the Feeling and Sensing preferences. If they have not developed their Feeling preference, ESFPs may get caught up in the interactions of the moment, with no mechanism for weighing, evaluating, or anchoring themselves. If they have not developed their Sensing preference, they may focus on the sensory data available in the moment. Their decisions may then be limited to gratification of sensual desires, particularly those involving interactions with other people.

If ESFPs do not find a place where they can use their gifts and be appreciated for their contributions, they usually feel frustrated and may become distracted or overly impulsive. They may have trouble accepting and meeting deadlines. They may also become hypersensitive, internalizing others’ actions and decisions.

It is natural for ESFPs to give less attention to their non-preferred Intuitive and Thinking parts. If they neglect these too much, they may fail to look at long-term consequences, acting on immediate needs of themselves and others. They may also avoid complex or ambiguous situations and people, putting enjoyment ahead of obligations.

Under great stress, ESFPs may feel overwhelmed internally by negative possibilities. They then put energy into developing simplistic global explanations for their negativity.[4]

Cognitive functions

Drawing upon Jungian theory, Isabel Myers proposed that for each personality type, the cognitive functions—sensing, intuition, thinking, and feeling—form a hierarchy. This hierarchy represents the person's "default" pattern of behavior.

The Dominant function is the personality type's preferred role, the one they feel most comfortable with. The secondary Auxiliary function serves to support and expand on the Dominant function. If the Dominant is an information gathering function (sensing or intuition), the Auxiliary is a decision making function (thinking or feeling), and vice versa. The Tertiary function is less developed than the Dominant and Auxiliary, but it matures over time, rounding out the person's abilities. The Inferior function is the personality type's Achilles' heel. This is the function they are least comfortable with. Like the Tertiary, the Inferior function strengthens with maturity.[12]

Jung and Myers considered the attitude of the Auxiliary, Tertiary, and Inferior functions to be the opposite of the Dominant. In this interpretation, if the Dominant function is extraverted, then the other three are introverted, and vice versa. However, many modern practitioners hold that the attitude of the Tertiary function is the same as the Dominant.[5] (Neither view is backed by sufficient empirical evidence to be considered scientifically valid.[13])

Using the more modern interpretation, the cognitive functions of the ESFP are as follows:[12]

Dominant: Extraverted Sensing (Se)

Se focuses on the experiences and sensations of the immediate, physical world. With an acute awareness of the present surroundings, it brings relevant facts and details to the forefront and may lead to spontaneous action.[14]

Auxiliary: Introverted Feeling (Fi)

Fi filters information based on interpretations of worth, forming judgments according to criteria that are often intangible. Fi constantly balances an internal set of values such as harmony and authenticity. Attuned to subtle distinctions, Fi innately senses what is true and what is false in a situation.[15]

Tertiary: Extraverted Thinking (Te)

Te organizes and schedules ideas and the environment to ensure the efficient, productive pursuit of objectives. Te seeks logical explanations for actions, events, and conclusions, looking for faulty reasoning and lapses in sequence.[16]

Inferior: Introverted Intuition (Ni)

Attracted to symbolic actions or devices, Ni synthesizes seeming paradoxes to create the previously unimagined. These realizations come with a certainty that demands action to fulfill a new vision of the future, solutions that may include complex systems or universal truths.[17]

Shadow functions

Later personality researchers (notably Linda V. Berens)[18] added four additional functions to the descending hierarchy, the so-called "shadow" functions to which the individual is not naturally inclined but which can emerge when the person is under stress. For ESFP, these shadow functions are (in order):

Type and personal growth

Each person is unique; there is no "right" or "wrong" type. The purpose of learning about personality type is to understand oneself better and enhance relationships with others. Results on the MBTI suggest the probable type based on the choices made when answering the questions; however, only the individual can determine his or her true type preference. Moreover, type does not explain everything. Human personality is much more complex.[4]

Notable ESFPs

According to the "Guidelines for Ethical Use for Certified MBTI Professionals"[23], "only the individual can verify his or her own best-fitting type." The MBTI instrument focuses on cognitive processes, which are not observable, and therefore speculation regarding another person's type is not an appropriate use of the instrument. The Keirsey Temperament Sorter, however, focuses on behavior, which is observable.[24] For illustrative purposes, some practitioners, as referenced below, have identified well-known individuals whose behavior is consistent with a specific type. Unless otherwise noted, the categorization of the individuals below, whether living or dead, as ESFPs is a matter of expert opinion rather than the result of actual personality testing of the named individual.

Correlation with Enneatype

According to Baron and Wagele, the most common Enneatypes for ESFPs are Helpers and Enthusiasts.[26]

See also


  1. ^ "Myers-Briggs Foundation: The 16 MBTI Types". http://www.myersbriggs.org/my-mbti-personality-type/mbti-basics/the-16-mbti-types.asp. Retrieved 2009-05-07. 

  2. ^ "Keirsey.com Portrait of the Performer". http://www.keirsey.com/handler.aspx?s=keirsey&f=fourtemps&tab=4&c=performer. Retrieved 10 January 2010. 

  3. ^ "CAPT". http://www.capt.org/mbti-assessment/estimated-frequencies.htm. Retrieved 2008-10-13. 

  4. ^ a b c d e Myers, Isabel Briggs (1998). Introduction to Type: A Guide to Understanding your Results on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Mountain View, CA: CPP, Inc.. 

  5. ^ a b Myers, Isabel Briggs; Mary H. McCaulley (1985) (in English). Manual: A Guide to the Development and Use of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (2nd edition ed.). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologist Press. pp. 52. ISBN 0-89106-027-8. 

  6. ^ "Changing Minds: Extraversion vs. Introversion". http://changingminds.org/explanations/preferences/extravert_introvert.htm. Retrieved 2009-01-10. 

  7. ^ "Changing Minds: Sensing vs. Intuiting". http://changingminds.org/explanations/preferences/sensing_intuiting.htm. Retrieved 2009-01-10. 

  8. ^ "Changing Minds: Thinking vs. Feeling". http://changingminds.org/explanations/preferences/thinking_feeling.htm. Retrieved 2009-01-10. 

  9. ^ "Changing Minds: Judging vs. Perceiving". http://changingminds.org/explanations/preferences/judging_perceiving.htm. Retrieved 2009-01-10. 

  10. ^ "Clinton, an ESFP". http://www.mypersonality.info/personality-types/esfp/. Retrieved 2009-06-01. 

  11. ^ "Ethical Feedback of MBTI Results". http://www.myersbriggs.org/myers-and-briggs-foundation/ethical-use-of-the-mbti-instrument/ethical-feedback.asp. Retrieved 2009-06-02. 

  12. ^ a b Barron-Tieger, Barbara; Tieger, Paul D. (1995). Do what you are: discover the perfect career for you through the secrets of personality type. Boston: Little, Brown. ISBN 0-316-84522-1. 

  13. ^ "The Personality Junkie: Personality Type Theory". http://personalityjunkie.com/personality-type-theory/. Retrieved 2009-11-22. 

  14. ^ "Cognitive Processes: Extraverted Sensing". http://www.cognitiveprocesses.com/extravertedsensing.html. Retrieved 2009-05-12. 

  15. ^ "Cognitive Processes: Introverted feeling". http://www.cognitiveprocesses.com/introvertedfeeling.html. Retrieved 2009-05-12. 

  16. ^ "Cognitive Processes: Extraverted thinking". http://www.cognitiveprocesses.com/extravertedthinking.html. Retrieved 2009-05-12. 

  17. ^ "Cognitive Processes: Introverted intuition". http://www.cognitiveprocesses.com/introvertedintuiting.html. Retrieved 2009-05-12. 

  18. ^ "CognitiveProcesses.com". http://www.cognitiveprocesses.com/index.html. Retrieved 2008-05-21. 

  19. ^ "Cognitive Processes: Introverted sensing". http://www.cognitiveprocesses.com/introvertedsensing.html. Retrieved 2009-05-12. 

  20. ^ "Cognitive Processes: Extraverted Feeling". http://www.cognitiveprocesses.com/extravertedfeeling.html. Retrieved 2009-05-12. 

  21. ^ "Cognitive Processes: Introverted thinking". http://www.cognitiveprocesses.com/introvertedthinking.html. Retrieved 2009-05-12. 

  22. ^ "Cognitive Processes: Extraverted intuition". http://www.cognitiveprocesses.com/extravertedintuiting.html. Retrieved 2009-05-12. 

  23. ^ "MBTI Certification Program". http://www.mbticertification.org. Retrieved 2008-04-27. 

  24. ^ Keirsey, David (1998). Please Understand Me II: Temperament, Character, Intelligence. Del Mar, CA: Prometheus Nemesis Book Company. pp. 29. ISBN 1-885705-02-6. 

  25. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Knowyourtype". http://www.knowyourtype.com/esfp.html. Retrieved 2009-08-10. 

  26. ^ * Wagele, Elizabeth; Renee Baron (1994). The Enneagram Made Easy. HarperOne. ISBN 0-06-251026-6. 

External links

Performers have the special ability, even among the Artisans, to delight those around them with their warmth, their good humor, and with their often extraordinary skills in music, comedy, and drama. Whether on the job, with friends, or with their families, Performers are exciting and full of fun, and their great social interest lies in stimulating those around them to take a break from work and worry, to lighten up and enjoy life.

Performers are plentiful, something over ten percent of the population, and this is fortunate, because they bring pleasure to so many of us. Performers are the people for whom it can truly be said "all the world's a stage." Born entertainers, they love the excitement of playing to an audience, and will quickly become the center of attention wherever they are. Performers aren't comfortable being alone, and seek the company of others whenever possible-which they usually find, for they make wonderful playmates. Performers are smooth, talkative, and witty; they always seem to know the latest jokes and stories, and are quick with wisecracks and wordplay-nothing is so serious or sacred that it can't be made fun of. Performers also like to live in the fast lane, and seem up on the latest fashions of dress, food, drink, and music. Lively and uninhibited, Performers are the life of the party, always trying to create in those around them a mood of eat, drink, and be merry.

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The Performers' talent for enjoying life is healthy for the most part, though it also makes them more subject to temptations than the other types. Pleasure seems to be an end in itself for them, and variety is the spice of life. And so Performers are open to trying almost anything that promises them a good time, not always giving enough thought to the consequences.

Like the other Artisans, Performers are incurably optimistic - "Always look on the bright side," is their motto - and they will avoid worries and troubles by ignoring them as long as possible. They are also the most generous of all the types, and second only to the Composer Artisans [ISFPs] in kindness. Performers haven't a mean or stingy bone in their body-what's theirs is yours-and they seem to have little idea of saving or conserving. They give what they have to one and all without expectation of reward, just as they love freely, and without expecting anything in return. In so many ways, Performers view life as an eternal cornucopia from which flows an endless supply of pleasures.

Elizabeth Taylor, John Goodman, Marylin Monroe, Judy Garland, Magic Johnson, Pablo Picasso, Bill Clinton, Ronald Reagan, Elvis, and Leonard Bernstein are examples of Performer Artisans.

A full description of the Performer Artisan is in People Patterns or Please Understand Me II

More About Your Artisan Performer Personality:

Careers:  Best Job Fit for Artisans
  Dealing With Stress at Work: Artisan Tactics
Relationships:  Women and Romance - Artisan Women
  Men and Romance - The Artisan Lover
  Love the One You're With - Tips for Artisans With Non-Artisan Partners
School:  Artisan Students: Maximizing Your Study Environment
  Artisans: Capitalizing on Your Intelligence Style

Receive Monthly Articles on Being An Artisan Performer: The Keirsey PersonalityZone Newsletter

All Artisans (SPs) share the following core characteristics:

Artisans are the temperament with a natural ability to excel in any of the arts, not only the fine arts such as painting and sculpting, or the performing arts such as music, theater, and dance, but also the athletic, military, political, mechanical, and industrial arts, as well as the "art of the deal" in business.

Artisans are most at home in the real world of solid objects that can be made and manipulated, and of real-life events that can be experienced in the here and now. Artisans have exceptionally keen senses, and love working with their hands. They seem right at home with tools, instruments, and vehicles of all kinds, and their actions are usually aimed at getting them where they want to go, and as quickly as possible. Thus Artisans will strike off boldly down roads that others might consider risky or impossible, doing whatever it takes, rules or no rules, to accomplish their goals. This devil-may-care attitude also gives the Artisans a winning way with people, and they are often irresistibly charming with family, friends, and co-workers.

Artisans want to be where the action is; they seek out adventure and show a constant hunger for pleasure and stimulation. They believe that variety is the spice of life, and that doing things that aren't fun or exciting is a waste of time. Artisans are impulsive, adaptable, competitive, and believe the next throw of the dice will be the lucky one. They can also be generous to a fault, always ready to share with their friends from the bounty of life. Above all, Artisans need to be free to do what they wish, when they wish. They resist being tied or bound or confined or obligated; they would rather not wait, or save, or store, or live for tomorrow. In the Artisan view, today must be enjoyed, for tomorrow never comes.

There are many Artisans, perhaps 30 to 35 percent of the population, which is good, because they create much of the beauty, grace, fun, and excitement the rest of us enjoy in life.

Ernest Hemingway, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Bruce Lee, Amelia Earhart, Bob Dylan, Barbra Streisand, Elvis Presley, Elizabeth Taylor, Madonna, and President John F. Kennedy are examples of Artisans.

A full description of the Artisan is in People Patterns or Please Understand Me II

A List of Famous Artisans

Artisan Quotes

Artisans as mates




Loikkaa: valikkoon, hakuun

Myers–Briggs-tyyppi-indikaattori (lyh. MBTI, engl. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator) on psykologinen indikaattori, joka kuvaa ihmisen persoonallisuutta neljän ulottuvuuden avulla. Indikaattorin kehitti Katherine Briggs tyttärensä Isabel Myersin kanssa toisen maailmansodan jälkeen saadakseen ihmiset ymmärtämään erilaisuutta ja tulemaan paremmin toimeen keskenään.

MBTI perustuu Carl Jungin teorioihin, joskin Briggs ja Myers lisäsivät ulottuvuuden järjestelmällinen–spontaani, koska Jungin rationaalisuus-käsite oli varsin vaikeaselkoinen. Indikaattorin kysymysten perusteella selvitetään, kumpaa preferenssiä (I–E, S–N, T–F ja J–P) koehenkilö luontevammin jokaisessa neljässä ulottuvuudessa käyttää. Persoonallisuudella tarkoitetaan luonteenpiirteitä, ominaisuuksia ja suhteellisen pysyviä käyttäytymismuotoja, mutta persoonallisuuden dynamiikka otetaan huomioon. MBTI:n mukaan persoonalisuus ei siis ole "pysäytyskuva", kuten piirretesteissä.




Kirjainlyhenteet tulevat seuraavista englanninkielisistä sanoista:



Tyypit johtoasemassa

Ulottuvuuksien kuvaus

I–E-ulottuvuus kuvaa asennetta ympäristöön. S–N-ulottuvuus kuvaa tiedonhankintatottumuksia ja T–F-ulottuvuus päätöksenteon perusteita. J–P-ulottuvuus kuvaa elämäntyyliä.

Ekstravertti (E) tuntee todennäköisesti olonsa kotoisammaksi ihmisten ja asioiden kanssa ulkomaailmassa kuin ideoiden sisäisessä maailmassa, "ulospäinsuuntautunut".

Introvertti (I) tuntee todennäköisesti olonsa kotoisammaksi sisäisessä ideamaailmassa kuin ihmisten ja asioiden ulkomaailmassa, "sisäänpäinsuuntautunut".

Tosiasiallinen (S) työskentelee todennäköisesti mieluummin tunnettujen tosiasioiden parissa kuin etsii mahdollisuuksia ja keskinäisiä suhteita.

Intuitiivinen (N) etsii mieluummin mahdollisuuksia ja yhteyksiä kuin työstää tunnettuja faktoja, tulevaisuuteen suuntautunut.

Ajatteleva (T) tekee päätökset todennäköisemmin persoonattoman analyysin kuin henkilökohtaisten arvojen perusteella.

Tunteva (F) tekee päätökset todennäköisemmin henkilökohtaisten arvojen kuin persoonattoman logiikan avulla.

Järjestelmällinen (J) pitää todennäköisesti enemmän suunnitellusta, organisoidusta, selvästä ja täsmällisestä elämäntavasta kuin joustavasta ja spontaanista.

Spontaani (P) pitää todennäköisesti enemmän joustavasta ja spontaanista elämäntavasta kuin suunnitellusta ja järjestelmällisestä.

Huomattakoon, että piirretestien "ekstrovertti" kuvaa enemmänkin eräänlaista sosiaalisuutta, kun taas MBTI:n ekstravertti kuvaa suuntautumista ulkoiseen asioiden ja ihmisten maailmaan ottamatta varsinaisesti kantaa sosiaalisuuteen.[3]

Neljä ulottuvuutta ja kahdeksan preferenssiä muodostavat 16 persoonallisuustyyppiä, joihin liittyy paljon preferenssien mukaisia yhteisiä piirteitä ja käyttäytymistapoja, vaikka tyypin sisällä olevat henkilöt ovat kukin omia erilaisia yksilöitään. MBTI on ainoa dynaaminen persoonallisuusindikaattori, joka kuvaa henkilön persoonallisuuden preferenssijärjestyksen ja se mukaisen käyttäytymisen niin tiedostetussa "normaalitilassa" kuin syystä tai toisesta ajauduttaessa vähemmän tiedostettujen "varjopersoonien" tasolle.[4] MBTI:n ulottuvuuksia voidaan osittain kuvata myös "viiden suuren persoonallisuudenpiirteen" (engl. big five) ulottuvuuksilla.[5]

Teoria viidestä suuresta persoonallisuuden piirteestä on McCraen & Costan käsityksen mukaan saanut persoonallisuuden tutkimuksessa enemmän tukea kuin Jungin luokitukseen perustuva teoria (mm. persoonallisuuden piirteitä pidetään jatkuvina, ei dikotomisina ominaisuuksina; mukana on myös viides neuroottisuus-ulottuvuus). MBTI:n kehittämistä[6] tuntevat voivat kuitenkin havaita MBTI:n toimivuuden ja käyttökelpoisuuden verrattuna muihin persoonallisuuden tarkastelutapoihin. Vaikka esimerkiksi ulottuuvuuksia ilmaistaan dikotomialla kuvaamaan ihmisen luontaista taipumusta "kallistua" ulottuuvuuden jommankumman ääripään suuntaan, on MBTI ainut dynaaminen malli, joka selittää ihmisen persoonallisuuden kokonaisuuden, myös ulottuvuuksien "heikomman pään" käytön. Patologiset ja piirretestit eivät ilmennä persoonallisuuden dynamiikkaa. MBTI:n erinomainen toimivuus on osoitettu runsaassa suomalaisessa tutkimuksessa.[7]

Satunnaisesti valitussa amerikkalaista väestöä kuvaavassa otoksessa tyypit jakautuivat seuraavasti (jakauma eroaa melkoisesti suomalaisesta työelämässä toimivasta väestöstä; huomautus V. Routamaa):[8]

Katso myös



  1. www.personalitypage.com/portraits

  2. Vesa Routamaa, Sotatieteiden päivät 2008, Maanpuolustuskorkeakoulu

  3. Esimerkiksi Routamaa & Hautala 2009.

  4. Esimerkiksi Myers & McCalley & Quenk & Hammer 1998.

  5. McCrae & Costa, 1989.

  6. Esimerkiksi Myers & McCaulley 1990; Myers & McCalley & Quenk & Hammer 1998.

  7. Ks. esimerkiksi MBTI Finland.

  8. Statistics Based on the new Form M of the MBTI Viitattu 14. heinäkuuta 2007. (englanniksi)

Aiheesta muualla

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) assessment is a psychometric questionnaire designed to measure psychological preferences in how people perceive  world and make decisions.[1]:1 se preferences were extrapolated from  typological ories originated by Carl Gustav Jung, as published in his 1921 book Psychological Types (English edition, 1923).[2]  original developers of  personality inventory were Katharine Cook Briggs and her daughter, Isabel Briggs Myers. y began creating  indicator during World War II, believing that a knowledge of personality preferences would help women who were entering  industrial workforce for  first time to identify  sort of war-time jobs where y would be "most comfortable and effective."[1]:xiii  initial questionnaire grew into  Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, which was first published in 1962.  MBTI focuses on normal populations and emphasizes  value of naturally occurring differences.[3]

 MBTI instrument is called " best-known and most trusted personality assessment tool available today"[4] by its publisher, CPP (formerly Consulting Psychologists Press). CPP furr calls  MBTI tool " world’s most widely used personality assessment",[5] with as many as two million assessments administered annually. Some academic psychologists have criticized  MBTI instrument, claiming that it "lacks convincing validity data".[6][7][8][9] Proponents of  test, however, cite reports of individual behavior[10] and have also found that  indicator meets or exceeds  reliability of or psychological instruments.[11] For most adults (75–90%), though not for children,  MBTI is reported to give  same result for 3–4 preferences when  test is administered to  same person more than once (although  period between measurements is not stated).[12] Some studies have found strong support for construct validity, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability, although variation was observed.[13][14]

 definitive published source of reference for  Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is  Manual produced by CPP,[15] from which much of  information in this article is drawn, along with training materials from CPP and ir European training partners, Oxford Psychologists Press. Also, a related model, with an original test, is published in David Keirsey's books Please Understand Me and Please Understand Me II.

 registered trademark rights to  terms Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and MBTI have been assigned from  publisher of  test, CPP, Inc., to  Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Trust.[16]


As  MBTI Manual states,  MBTI "is designed to implement a ory; refore  ory must be understood to understand  MBTI."[17]:1

Fundamental to  Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is  ory of psychological type as originally developed by Carl Jung.[1]:xiii Jung proposed  existence of two dichotomous pairs of cognitive functions:

Jung went on to suggest that se functions are expressed in eir an introverted or extraverted form.[1]:17 From Jung's original concepts, Briggs and Myers developed ir own ory of psychological type, described below, on which  MBTI is based.


 Myers-Briggs typology model regards personality type as similar to left or right handedness: individuals are eir born with, or develop, certain preferred ways of thinking and acting.  MBTI sorts some of se psychological differences into four opposite pairs, or dichotomies, with a resulting 16 possible psychological types. None of se types are "better" or "worse"; however, Briggs and Myers orized that individuals naturally prefer one overall combination of type differences.[1]:9 In  same way that writing with  left hand is hard work for a right-hander, so people tend to find using ir opposite psychological preferences more difficult, even if y can become more proficient (and refore behaviorally flexible) with practice and development.

 16 types are typically referred to by an abbreviation of four letters— initial letters of each of ir four type preferences (except in  case of iNtuition, which uses  abbreviation N to distinguish it from Introversion).

For instance:

And so on for all 16 possible type combinations.

Four dichotomies

 four pairs of preferences or dichotomies are shown in  table to  right.

Note that  terms used for each dichotomy have specific technical meanings relating to  MBTI which differ from ir everyday usage. For example, people who prefer judgment over perception are not necessarily more judgmental or less perceptive.

Nor does  MBTI instrument measure aptitude; it simply indicates for one preference over anor.[17]:3 Someone reporting a high score for extraversion over introversion cannot be correctly described as more extraverted: y simply have a clear preference.

Point scores on each of  dichotomies can vary considerably from person to person, even among those with  same type. However, Isabel Myers considered  direction of  preference (for example, E vs. I) to be more important than  degree of  preference (for example, very clear vs. slight).[15]

Attitudes: Extraversion (E) / Introversion (I)

 preferences for extraversion (thus spelled in Myers-Briggs jargon) and introversion are sometimes referred to as attitudes. Briggs and Myers recognized that each of  cognitive functions can operate in  external world of behavior, action, people, and things (extraverted attitude) or  internal world of ideas and reflection (introverted attitude).  Myers-Briggs Type Indicator sorts for an overall preference for one or  or of se.

 terms extravert and introvert are used in a special sense when discussing  Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. People who prefer extraversion draw energy from action: y tend to act, n reflect, n act furr. If y are inactive, ir motivation tends to decline. To rebuild ir energy, extraverts need breaks from time spent in reflection. Conversely, those who prefer introversion expend energy through action: y prefer to reflect, n act, n reflect again. To rebuild ir energy, introverts need quiet time alone, away from activity.

 extravert's flow is directed outward toward people and objects, and  introvert's is directed inward toward concepts and ideas. Contrasting characteristics between extraverts and introverts include  following:

Functions: Sensing (S) / iNtuition (N) and Thinking (T) / Feeling (F)

Jung identified two pairs of psychological functions:

According to  Myers-Briggs typology model, each person uses one of se four functions more dominantly and proficiently than  or three; however, all four functions are used at different times depending on  circumstances.

Sensing and intuition are  information-garing (perceiving) functions. y describe how new information is understood and interpreted. Individuals who prefer sensing are more likely to trust information that is in  present, tangible and concrete: that is, information that can be understood by  five senses. y tend to distrust hunches, which seem to come "out of nowhere."[1]:2 y prefer to look for details and facts. For m,  meaning is in  data. On  or hand, those who prefer intuition tend to trust information that is more abstract or oretical, that can be associated with or information (eir remembered or discovered by seeking a wider context or pattern). y may be more interested in future possibilities. y tend to trust those flashes of insight that seem to bubble up from  unconscious mind.  meaning is in how  data relates to  pattern or ory.

Thinking and feeling are  decision-making (judging) functions.  thinking and feeling functions are both used to make rational decisions, based on  data received from ir information-garing functions (sensing or intuition). Those who prefer thinking tend to decide things from a more detached standpoint, measuring  decision by what seems reasonable, logical, causal, consistent and matching a given set of rules. Those who prefer feeling tend to come to decisions by associating or empathizing with  situation, looking at it 'from  inside' and weighing  situation to achieve, on balance,  greatest harmony, consensus and fit, considering  needs of  people involved.

As noted already, people who prefer thinking do not necessarily, in  everyday sense, "think better" than ir feeling counterparts;  opposite preference is considered an equally rational way of coming to decisions (and, in any case,  MBTI assessment is a measure of preference, not ability). Similarly, those who prefer feeling do not necessarily have "better" emotional reactions than ir thinking counterparts.

Dominant Function

Although people use all four cognitive functions, one function is generally used in a more conscious and confident way. This dominant function is supported by  secondary (auxiliary) function, and to a lesser degree  tertiary function.  fourth and least conscious function is always  opposite of  dominant function. Myers called this inferior function  shadow.[1]:84

 four functions operate in conjunction with  attitudes (extraversion and introversion). Each function is used in eir an extraverted or introverted way. A person whose dominant function is extraverted intuition, for example, uses intuition very differently from someone whose dominant function is introverted intuition.

Lifestyle: Judgment (J) / Perception (P)

Myers and Briggs added anor dimension to Jung's typological model by identifying that people also have a preference for using eir  judging function (thinking or feeling) or ir perceiving function (sensing or intuition) when relating to  outside world (extraversion).

Myers and Briggs held that types with a preference for judgment show  world ir preferred judging function (thinking or feeling). So TJ types tend to appear to  world as logical, and FJ types as empatic. According to Myers,[1]:75 judging types like to "have matters settled." Those types who prefer perception show  world ir preferred perceiving function (sensing or intuition). So SP types tend to appear to  world as concrete and NP types as abstract. According to Myers,[1]:75 perceptive types prefer to "keep decisions open."

For extraverts,  J or P indicates ir dominant function; for introverts,  J or P indicates ir auxiliary function. Introverts tend to show ir dominant function outwardly only in matters "important to ir inner worlds."[1]:13 For example:

Because ENTJ types are extraverts,  J indicates that ir dominant function is ir preferred judging function (extraverted thinking). ENTJ types introvert ir auxiliary perceiving function (introverted intuition).  tertiary function is sensing and  inferior function is introverted feeling.

Because INTJ types are introverts,  J indicates that ir auxiliary function is ir preferred judging function (extraverted thinking). INTJ types introvert ir dominant perceiving function (introverted intuition).  tertiary function is feeling, and  inferior function is extraverted sensing.

Whole type

 expression of a person's psychological type is more than  sum of  four individual preferences, because of  way in which  preferences interact through type dynamics and type development. Descriptions of each type can be found on  Myers & Briggs Foundation website. In-depth descriptions of each type, including statistics, can be found in  MBTI Manual.[15]

Historical development

Katharine Cook Briggs began her research into personality in 1917. Upon meeting her future son-in-law, she observed marked differences between his personality and that of or family members. Briggs embarked on a project of reading biographies, and she developed a typology based on patterns she found. She proposed four temperaments: Meditative (or Thoughtful), Spontaneous, Executive, and Social.[19][20] n, after  English translation of Psychological Types was published in 1923 (having first been published in German in 1921), she recognized that Jung's ory was similar to, yet went far beyond, her own.[1]:22 Briggs's four types were later identified as corresponding to  Is, EPs, ETJs and EFJs.[19][20] Her first publications were two articles describing Jung's ory, in  journal New Republic in 1926 (Meet Yourself Using  Personality Paint Box) and 1928 (Up From Barbarism).

Briggs's daughter, Isabel Briggs Myers, added to her mor's typological research, which she would progressively take over entirely. Myers graduated first in her class from Swarthmore College in 1919[1]:xx and wrote  prize-winning mystery novel Murder Yet to Come in 1929 using typological ideas. However, neir Myers nor Briggs were formally educated in psychology, and thus y lacked scientific credentials in  field of psychometric testing.[1]:xiii So Myers apprenticed herself to Edward N. Hay, who was n personnel manager for a large Philadelphia bank and went on to start one of  first successful personnel consulting firms in  U.S. From Hay, Myers learned test construction, scoring, validation, and statistics.[1]:xiii, xx In 1942,  "Briggs-Myers Type Indicator" was created, and  Briggs Myers Type Indicator Handbook was published in 1944.  indicator changed its name to  modern form (Myers-Briggs Type Indicator) in 1956.[21][22]

Myers' work attracted  attention of Henry Chauncey, head of  Educational Testing Service, and under se auspices,  first MBTI Manual was published in 1962.  MBTI received furr support from Donald T. McKinnon, head of  Institute of Personality Research at  University of California; Harold Grant, professor at Michigan State and Auburn Universities; and Mary H. McCaulley of  University of Florida.  publication of  MBTI was transferred to Consulting Psychologists Press in 1975, and  Center for Applications of Psychological Type (CAPT) was founded as a research laboratory.[1]:xxi After Myers' death in May 1980, Mary McCaulley updated  MBTI Manual, and  second edition was published in 1985.[15]  third edition appeared in 1998.

Differences from Jung

Judgment vs. Perception

 most notable addition of Myers and Briggs to Jung's original thought is ir concept that a given type's fourth letter (J or P) is determined by how that type interacts with  external world, rar than by  type's dominant function.  difference becomes evident when assessing  cognitive functions of introverts.[1]:21-22

To Jung, a type with dominant introverted thinking, for example, would be considered rational (judging) because  decision-making function is dominant. To Myers, however, that same type would be irrational (perceiving) because  individual uses an information-garing function (eir extraverted intuition or extraverted sensing) when interacting with  outer world.

Orientation of  tertiary function
Jung orized that  dominant function acts alone in its preferred world: exterior for  extraverts, and interior for  introverts.  remaining three functions, he suggested, operate toger in  opposite world. If  dominant cognitive function is introverted,  or functions are extraverted, and vice versa.  MBTI Manual summarizes references in Jung's work to  balance in psychological type as follows:

re are several references in Jung's writing to  three remaining functions having an opposite attitudinal character. For example, in writing about introverts with thinking dominant...Jung commented that  counterbalancing functions have an extraverted character.[15]:29

However, many MBTI practitioners hold that  tertiary function is oriented in  same direction as  dominant function.[23] Using  INTP type as an example,  orientation would be as follows:

From a oretical perspective, noted psychologist H.J. Eysenck calls  MBTI a moderately successful quantification of Jung's original principles as outlined in Psychological Types.[24] However, both models remain ory, with no controlled scientific studies supporting eir Jung's original concept of type or  Myers-Briggs variation.[25]


 indicator is frequently used in  areas of pedagogy, career counseling, team building, group dynamics, professional development, marketing, leadership training, executive coaching, life coaching, personal development, marriage counseling, and workers' compensation claims.

Format and administration

 current North American English version of  MBTI Step I includes 93 forced-choice questions (re are 88 in  European English version). Forced-choice means that  individual has to choose only one of two possible answers to each question.  choices are a mixture of word pairs and short statements. Choices are not literal opposites but chosen to reflect opposite preferences on  same dichotomy. Participants may skip questions if y feel y are unable to choose.

Using psychometric techniques, such as item response ory,  MBTI will n be scored and will attempt to identify  preference, and clarity of preference, in each dichotomy. After taking  MBTI, participants are usually asked to complete a Best Fit exercise (see above) and n given a readout of ir Reported Type, which will usually include a bar graph and number to show how clear y were about each preference when y completed  questionnaire.

During  early development of  MBTI thousands of items were used. Most were eventually discarded because y did not have high midpoint discrimination, meaning  results of that one item did not, on average, move an individual score away from  midpoint. Using only items with high midpoint discrimination allows  MBTI to have fewer items on it but still provide as much statistical information as or instruments with many more items with lower midpoint discrimination.  MBTI requires five points one way or anor to indicate a clear preference.

Additional formats

Isabel Myers had noted that people of any given type shared differences as well as similarities. At  time of her death, she was developing a more in-depth method of measuring how people express and experience ir individual type pattern. This tool is called  MBTI Step II.

A Step III is also being developed in a joint project involving  following organizations: CPP,  publisher of  whole family of MBTI works; CAPT (Center for Applications of Psychological Type), which holds all of Myers' and McCaulley's original work; and  MBTI Trust, headed by Katharine and Peter Myers. Step III will furr address  use of perception and judgment by respondents.[26]

In addition,  Type Differentiation Indicator (TDI) (Saunders, 1989) is a scoring system for  longer MBTI, Form J,[27] which includes  20 subscales above, plus a Comfort-Discomfort factor (which purportedly corresponds to  missing factor of Neuroticism). This factor includes seven additional scales to indicate a sense of overall comfort and confidence versus discomfort and anxiety: guarded-optimistic, defiant-compliant, carefree-worried, decisive-ambivalent, intrepid-inhibited, leader-follower, and proactive-distractible. Also included is a composite of se called "strain." Each of se comfort-discomfort subscales also loads onto one of  four type dimensions, for example, proactive-distractible is also a judging-perceiving subscale. re are also scales for type-scale consistency and comfort-scale consistency. Reliability of 23 of  27 TDI subscales is greater than .50, "an acceptable result given  brevity of  subscales" (Saunders, 1989).

Precepts and ethics

 following precepts are generally used in  ethical administration of  Myers-Briggs Type Indicator:

Type not trait

 MBTI sorts for type; it does not indicate  strength of ability.  questionnaire allows  clarity of a preference to be ascertained (Bill clearly prefers introversion), but not  strength of preference (Jane strongly prefers extraversion) or degree of aptitude (Harry is good at thinking). In this sense, it differs from trait-based tools such as 16PF. Type preferences are polar opposites: a precept of MBTI is that people fundamentally prefer one thing over  or, not a bit of both.

Own best judge

Individuals are considered  best judge of ir own type. While  MBTI questionnaire provides a Reported Type, this is considered only an indication of ir probable overall Type. A Best Fit Process is usually used to allow respondents to develop ir understanding of  four dichotomies, to form ir own hyposis as to ir overall Type, and to compare this against  Reported Type. In more than 20% of cases,  hyposis and  Reported Type differ in one or more dichotomies. Using  clarity of each preference, any potential for bias in  report, and often, a comparison of two or more whole Types may n help respondents determine ir own Best Fit.

No right or wrong

No preference or total type is considered "better" or "worse" than anor. y are all Gifts Differing, as emphasized by  title of Isabel Briggs Myers' book on this subject.


It is considered unethical to compel anyone to take  Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. It should always be taken voluntarily.[28]


 result of  MBTI Reported and Best Fit type are confidential between  individual and administrator and, ethically, not for disclosure without permission.

Not for selection

 results of  assessment should not be used to "label, evaluate, or limit  respondent in any way."[28] Since all types are valuable, and  MBTI measures preferences rar than aptitude,  MBTI is not considered a proper instrument for purposes of employment selection. Many professions contain highly competent individuals of different types with complementary preferences.

Importance of proper feedback

Individuals should always be given detailed feedback from a trained administrator and an opportunity to undertake a Best Fit exercise to check against ir Reported Type. This feedback can be given in person or, where this is not practical, by telephone or electronically.

Type dynamics and development

 interaction of two, three, or four preferences is known as type dynamics. Although type dynamics has garnered little or no empirical support to substantiate its viability as a scientific ory,[30] Myers and Briggs asserted that for each of  16 four-preference types, one function is  most dominant and is likely to be evident earliest in life. A secondary or auxiliary function typically becomes more evident (differentiated) during teenage years and provides balance to  dominant. In normal development individuals tend to become more fluent with a third, tertiary function during mid life, while  fourth, inferior function remains least consciously developed.  inferior function is often considered to be more associated with  unconscious, being most evident in situations such as high stress (sometimes referred to as being in  grip of  inferior function).

 sequence of differentiation of dominant, auxiliary, and tertiary functions through life is termed type development. Note that this is an idealized sequence that may be disrupted by major life events.

 dynamic sequence of functions and ir attitudes can be determined in  following way:

Note that for extraverts,  dominant function is  one most evident in  external world. For introverts, however, it is  auxiliary function that is most evident externally, as ir dominant function relates to  interior world.

Some examples of whole types may clarify this furr. Taking  ESTJ example above:

 dynamics of  ESTJ are found in  primary combination of extraverted thinking as ir dominant function and introverted sensing as ir auxiliary function:  dominant tendency of ESTJs to order ir environment, to set clear boundaries, to clarify roles and timetables, and to direct  activities around m is supported by ir facility for using past experience in an ordered and systematic way to help organize mselves and ors. For instance, ESTJs may enjoy planning trips for groups of people to achieve some goal or to perform some culturally uplifting function. Because of ir ease in directing ors and ir facility in managing ir own time, y engage all  resources at ir disposal to achieve ir goals. However, under prolonged stress or sudden trauma, ESTJs may overuse ir extraverted thinking function and fall into  grip of ir inferior function, introverted feeling. Although  ESTJ can seem insensitive to  feelings of ors in ir normal activities, under tremendous stress, y can suddenly express feelings of being unappreciated or wounded by insensitivity.

Looking at  diametrically opposite four-letter type, INFP:

 dynamics of  INFP rest on  fundamental correspondence of introverted feeling and extraverted intuition.  dominant tendency of  INFP is toward building a rich internal framework of values and toward championing human rights. y often devote mselves behind  scenes to causes such as civil rights or saving  environment. Since y tend to avoid  limelight, postpone decisions, and maintain a reserved posture, y are rarely found in executive-director type positions of  organizations that serve those causes. Normally,  INFP dislikes being "in charge" of things. When not under stress,  INFP radiates a pleasant and sympatic demeanor; but under extreme stress, y can suddenly become rigid and directive, exerting ir extraverted thinking erratically.

Every type—and its opposite—is  expression of se interactions, which give each type its unique, recognizable signature.

Expansion of  ory

Related instruments

Or personality type instruments based on  Myers-Briggs ory include  Golden Personality Type Profile and  Majors Personality Type Indicator.

Brain halves

Some have orized that  cognitive functions may correlate to  Lateralization of brain function.[31] Ors claim, however, that this proposed correlation has no scientific basis.[citation needed]

Correlations to or instruments

Keirsey Temperaments

David W. Keirsey mapped four 'temperaments' to  existing Myers-Briggs system groupings SP, SJ, NF and NT; this often results in confusion of  two ories. However,  Keirsey Temperament Sorter is not directly associated with  official Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.






Inspector Protector Counselor Mastermind





Crafter Composer Healer Architect





Promoter Performer Champion Inventor





Supervisor Provider Teacher Fieldmarshal

Big Five

McCrae and Costa[7] present correlations between  MBTI scales and  Big Five personality construct, which is a conglomeration of characteristics found in nearly all personality and psychological tests.  five personality characteristics are extraversion, openness, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and emotional stability (or neuroticism).  following study is based on  results from 267 men followed as part of a longitudinal study of aging. (Similar results were obtained with 201 women.)

se data suggest that four of  MBTI scales are related to  Big Five personality traits. se correlations show that E-I and S-N are strongly related to extraversion and openness respectively, while T-F and J-P are moderately related to agreeableness and conscientiousness respectively.  emotional stability dimension of  Big Five is largely absent from  original MBTI (though  TDI, discussed above, has addressed that dimension).

se findings led McCrae and Costa,  formulators of  Five Factor ory,[32] to conclude, "correlational analyses showed that  four MBTI indices did measure aspects of four of  five major dimensions of normal personality.  five-factor model provides an alternative basis for interpreting MBTI findings within a broader, more commonly shared conceptual framework." However, "re was no support for  view that  MBTI measures truly dichotomous preferences or qualitatively distinct types, instead,  instrument measures four relatively independent dimensions."


Origins of  ory

Jung's ory of psychological type, as published in his 1921 book, was not tested through controlled scientific studies.[25] Jung's methods primarily included clinical observation, introspection and anecdote—methods that are largely regarded as inconclusive by  modern field of psychology.[25]

Jung's type ory introduced a sequence of four cognitive functions (thinking, feeling, sensing, and intuition), each having one of two orientations (extraverted or introverted), for a total of eight functions.  Myers-Briggs ory is based on se eight functions, although with some differences in expression (see Differences from Jung above). However, neir  Myers-Briggs nor  Jungian models offer any scientific, experimental proof to support  existencesequenceorientation, or  manifestation of se functions.[25]


 statistical validity of  MBTI as a psychometric instrument has been  subject of criticism. It has been estimated that between a third and a half of  published material on  MBTI has been produced for conferences of  Center for  Application of Psychological Type (which provides training in  MBTI) or as papers in  Journal of Psychological Type (which is edited by Myers-Briggs advocates).[33] It has been argued that this reflects a lack of critical scrutiny.[33][34]

 accuracy of  MBTI depends on honest self-reporting by  person tested.[17]:52-53 Unlike some personality measures, such as  Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory or  Personality Assessment Inventory,  MBTI does not use validity scales to assess exaggerated or socially desirable responses.[35] As a result, individuals motivated to do so can fake ir responses,[36] and one study found that  MBTI judgment/perception dimension correlates with  Eysenck Personality Questionnaire lie scale.[37] If respondents "fear y have something to lose, y may answer as y assume y should."[17]:53

With regard to factor analysis, one study of 1291 college-aged students found six different factors instead of  four used in  MBTI.[38] In or studies, researchers found that  JP and  SN scales correlate with one anor.[7]


Some researchers have interpreted  reliability of  test as being low. Studies have found that between 39% and 76% of those tested fall into different types upon retesting some weeks or years later.[9][34]

One study reports that  MBTI dichotomies exhibit good split-half reliability; however,  dichotomy scores are distributed in a bell curve, and  overall type allocations are less reliable. Also, test-retest reliability is sensitive to  time between tests. Within each dichotomy scale, as measured on Form G, about 83% of categorizations remain  same when individuals are retested within nine months, and around 75% when individuals are retested after nine months. About 50% of people tested within nine months remain  same overall type, and 36% remain  same type after more than nine months.[39] For Form M ( most current form of  MBTI instrument), se scores are higher (see MBTI Manual, p. 163, Table 8.6).

In one study, when people were asked to compare ir preferred type to that assigned by  MBTI, only half of people picked  same profile.[40] Critics also argue that  MBTI lacks falsifiability, which can cause confirmation bias in  interpretation of results.

Statistical structure

 instrument's dichotomous scoring of dimensions has also been subject to criticism. For example, some researchers expected that scores would show a bimodal distribution with peaks near  ends of  scales, but found that scores on  individual subscales were actually distributed in a centrally peaked manner similar to a normal distribution. A cut-off exists at  center of  subscale such that a score on one side is classified as one type, and a score on  or side as  opposite type. This fails to support  concept of type:  norm is for people to lie near  middle of  subscale.[7][8][9][34][41] Neverless, " absence of bimodal score distributions does not necessarily prove that  'type'-based approach is incorrect."[41]


 relevance of  MBTI for career planning has been questioned, with reservations about  relevance of type to job performance or satisfaction, and concerns about  potential misuse of  instrument in labeling individuals.[34][42] In her original research, Isabel Myers found that  proportion of different personality types varied by choice of career or course of study.[1]:40-51[15] However, some or researchers examining  proportions of each type within varying professions report that  proportion of MBTI types within each occupation is close to that within a random sample of  population.[34]

Also,  efficiency of MBTI in an organizational setting has been subject to scrutiny. In 1991 three scholars at  University of Western Ontario analyzed  results of 97 independent studies that evaluated  effectiveness of personality tests in predicting job success and job satisfaction ("Personnel Psychology," winter 1991).  results of  nationwide study challenged  effectiveness of  MBTI when related to individual performance and satisfaction in a corporate setting.

“ validity coefficient for personality tests in predicting job success was found to average 0.29 (on a scale of 0 to 1).  corresponding average validity for  MBTI, however, was a weak 0.12. In fact, each study that examined  MBTI found its validity to be below acceptable levels of statistical significance.”[43]

However, as noted above under Precepts and ethics,  MBTI measures preference, not ability.  use of  MBTI as a predictor of job success is expressly discouraged in  Manual.[17]:78 It is not designed to be used for this purpose.


Skeptics criticize  terminology of  MBTI as being so "vague and general"[44] as to allow any kind of behavior to fit any personality type. y claim that this results in  Forer effect, where individuals give a high rating to a positive description that supposedly applies specifically to m.[25][34] Ors argue that while  MBTI type descriptions are brief, y are also distinctive and precise.[45]:14-15 Some orists, such as David Keirsey, have expanded on  MBTI descriptions, providing even greater detail. For instance, Keirsey's descriptions of his four temperaments, which he correlated with  sixteen MBTI personality types, show how  temperaments differ in terms of language use, intellectual orientation, educational and vocational interests, social orientation, self image, personal values, social roles, and characteristic hand gestures.[45]:32-207

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Myers, Isabel Briggs with Peter B. Myers (1980, 1995). Gifts Differing: Understanding Personality Type. Mountain View, CA: Davies-Black Publishing. ISBN 0-89106-074-X. 

  2. ^ Jung, Carl Gustav (August 1, 1971). "Psychological Types". Collected Works of C.G. Jung, Volume 6. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-09774. 

  3. ^ Pearman, Roger R.; Sarah C. Albritton (1997). I'm Not Crazy, I'm Just Not You (First ed.). Palo Alto, California: Davies-Black Publishing. xiii. ISBN 0891060960. 

  4. ^ "CPP MBTI Information". https://www.cpp.com/Products/mbti/mbti_info.aspx. Retrieved 2009-06-20. 

  5. ^ "CPP Products". https://www.cpp.com/products/index.aspx. Retrieved 2009-06-20. 

  6. ^ Hunsley J, Lee CM, Wood JM (2004). "Controversial and questionable assessment techniques". Science and Pseudoscience in Clinical Psychology, Lilienfeld SO, Lohr JM, Lynn SJ (eds.). Guilford. ISBN 1-59385-070-0. , p. 65

  7. ^ a b c d McCrae, R R; Costa, P T (1989). "Reinterpreting  Myers-Briggs Type Indicator From  Perspective of  Five-Factor Model of Personality". Journal of Personality 57 (1): 17–40. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6494.1989.tb00759.x. PMID 2709300. 

  8. ^ a b Stricker, L J; Ross, J (1964). "An Assessment of Some Structural Properties of  Jungian Personality Typology". Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 68: 62–71. doi:10.1037/h0043580. 

  9. ^ a b c Matws, P (2004-05-21). " MBTI is a flawed measure of personality". Bmj.com Rapid Responses. http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/eletters/328/7450/1244.  But see also Clack & Allen's response to Matws.

  10. ^ Barron-Tieger, Barbara; Tieger, Paul D. (1995). Do what you are: discover  perfect career for you through  secrets of personality type. Boston: Little, Brown. ISBN 0-316-84522-1. 

  11. ^ Clack, Gillian; Judy Allen. "Response to Paul Matws' criticism". http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/eletters/328/7450/1244. Retrieved 2008-05-14. 

  12. ^ Lawrence, Gordon; Charles Martin. "CAPT (Center for Applications of Psychological Type)". http://www.capt.org/mbti-assessment/reliability-validity.htm. Retrieved 2008-04-20. 

  13. ^ Thompson, Bruce; Gloria M. Borrello (1986). "Educational and Psychological Measurement". Construct Validity of  Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. SAGE Publications. http://epm.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/46/3/745. Retrieved 2008-04-20. 

  14. ^ Capraro, Robert M.; Mary Margaret Capraro (2002). "Educational and Psychological Measurement". Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Score Reliability Across: Studies a Meta-Analytic Reliability Generalization Study. SAGE Publications. http://epm.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/62/4/590. Retrieved 2008-04-20. 

  15. ^ a b c d e f Myers, Isabel Briggs; McCaulley Mary H.; Quenk, Naomi L.; Hammer, Allen L. (1998). MBTI Manual (A guide to  development and use of  Myers Briggs type indicator). Consulting Psychologists Press; 3rd ed edition. ISBN 0-89106-130-4. 

  16. ^ "Trademark Guidelines" (PDF). Consulting Psychologists Press. https://online.cpp-db.com/Inc/Trademark_Guidelines.pdf. Retrieved December 20, 2004. 

  17. ^ a b c d e Myers, Isabel Briggs; Mary H. McCaulley (1985). Manual: A Guide to  Development and Use of  Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (2nd ed.). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press. ISBN 0-89106-027-8. 

  18. ^ Tieger, Paul D.; Barbara Barron-Tieger (1999).  Art of SpeedReading People. New York, NY: Little, Brown and Company. pp. 66. ISBN 978-0-316-84518-2. 

  19. ^ a b "CAPT: " Story of Isabel Briggs Myers"". http://www.capt.org/mbti-assessment/isabel-myers.htm. Retrieved 2009-07-29. 

  20. ^ a b " TYPE Writer: "It Happened In 1943:  Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Turns 60 Years Old"". https://www.cpp.com/pr/Fall03TYPEwriter.pdf. Retrieved 2009-07-29. 

  21. ^ Geyer, Peter (1998) Some Significant Dates. Retrieved December 5, 2005.

  22. ^ "Guide to  Isabel Briggs Myers Papers 1885-1992". University of Florida George A. Smars Libraries, Department of Special and Area Studies Collections, Gainesville, FL.. 2003. http://web.uflib.ufl.edu/spec/manuscript/guides/Myers.htm. Retrieved December 5, 2005. 

  23. ^ "TypeLogic". http://www.typelogic.com/fa.html. Retrieved 2008-09-14. 

  24. ^ Eysenck, H.J.. Genius:  Natural History of Creativity (1995 ed.). pp. 110. 

  25. ^ a b c d e Carroll, Robert Todd (January 9, 2004). "Myers-Briggs Type Indicator- Skeptic's Dictionary". http://skepdic.com/myersb.html. Retrieved January 8, 2004. 

  26. ^ "CAPT Step III". https://www.capt.org/research/mbti-step3.htm. Retrieved 2008-09-14. 

  27. ^ [http://harvey.psyc.vt.edu/Documents/BessHarveySwartzSIOP2003.pdf ""Hierarchical Confirmatory Factor Analysis of  Myers-Briggs Type Indicator""] (PDF). http://harvey.psyc.vt.edu/Documents/BessHarveySwartzSIOP2003.pdf. Retrieved 2008-09-14. 

  28. ^ a b "Ethics for Administering  MBTI Instrument". http://www.myersbriggs.org/myers-and-briggs-foundation/ethical-use-of--mbti-instrument/ethics-for-administering.asp. Retrieved 2009-02-15. 

  29. ^ "Dolphin Cove". http://www.infj.org/archive/typestats.html. Retrieved 2008-06-25. 

  30. ^ " Personality Junkie: Personality Type ory". http://personalityjunkie.com/personality-type-ory/. Retrieved 2009-11-22. 

  31. ^ Bentz Thomson, Lenore (October 1998). Personality Type: An Owner's Manual. Jung on  Hudson Books. Shambhala Publications, Inc.. pp. 415. ISBN 9780877739876. 

  32. ^ "University of Oregon: "Measuring  Big Five Personality Factors"". http://www.uoregon.edu/~sanjay/bigfive.html#b5vffm. Retrieved 2008-08-08. 

  33. ^ a b Coffield F, Moseley D, Hall E, Ecclestone K (2004). "Learning styles and pedagogy in post-16 learning: A systematic and critical review" (PDF). Learning and Skills Research Centre. http://www.lsda.org.uk/files/PDF/1543.pdf. 

  34. ^ a b c d e f Pittenger, David J. (November 1993). "Measuring  MBTI...And Coming Up Short." (PDF). Journal of Career Planning and Employment 54 (1): 48–52. http://www.indiana.edu/~jobtalk/HRMWebsite/hrm/articles/develop/mbti.pdf. 

  35. ^ Boyle, G J (1995). "Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI): Some psychometric limitations". Australian Psychologist 30: 71–74. 

  36. ^ Furnham, A (1990). "Faking personality questionnaires: Fabricating different profiles for different purposes". Current Psychology 9: 46–55. doi:10.1007/BF02686767. 

  37. ^ Francis, L J; Jones, S H (2000). " Relationship Between  Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and  Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Among Adult Churchgoers". Pastoral Psychology 48. 

  38. ^ Sipps, G.J., R.A. Alexander, and L. Friedt. "Item Analysis of  Myers-Briggs Type Indicator." Educational and Psychological Measurement, Vol. 45, No. 4 (1985), pp. 789-796.

  39. ^ Harvey, R J (1996). Reliability and Validity, in MBTI Applications A.L. Hammer, Editor. Consulting Psychologists Press: Palo Alto, CA.  p. 5- 29.

  40. ^ Carskadon, TG & Cook, DD (1982). "Validity of MBTI descriptions as perceived by recipients unfamiliar with type". Research in Psychological Type 5: 89–94. 

  41. ^ a b Bess, T.L. & Harvey, R.J. (2001). " Annual Conference of  Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, San Diego 2001" (PDF). http://harvey.psyc.vt.edu/Documents/SIOPhandoutBess-HarveyMBTI2001.pdf. 

  42. ^ Druckman, D. and R. A. Bjork, Eds. (1992). In  Mind’s Eye: Enhancing Human Performance. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. ISBN 0-309-04747-1. 

  43. ^ Letters to  Editor: It's Not You, It's Your Personality. (1992, February 3). Wall Street Journal (Eastern Edition), p. PAGE A13. Retrieved November 8, 2008, from Wall Street Journal database. (Document ID: 27836749).

  44. ^ "Forer effect from  Skeptic's Dictionary". http://www.skepdic.com/forer.html. 

  45. ^ a b Keirsey, David (1998). Please Understand Me II: Temperament, Character, Intelligence. Del Mar, CA: Promeus Nemesis Book Company. ISBN 1-885705-02-6. 

References and furr reading


Official websites

Assessing type in children

Criticism of  MBTI

Type profiles

Free online Jungian typology assessments
(note that some or assessments offered on se sites may not be free)



Enneagrammi on tapa hahmottaa ihmisen tyypillistä käyttäytymistä. Se perustuu jo lapsuudessa omaksuttuihin käyttäytymismuotoihin, joiden avulla lapsi on saanut turvallisuutta ja selviytymiskokemuksia. Tätä selviytymisstrategiaa hän helposti soveltaa myös aikuisiässä. Fransiskaanipappi Richard Rohr osiutti, että jo erämaaisät tunsivat ennagrammin sen alkumodossaan (mm. Evagrios Pontoslainen 300-luvulla). Enneagrammi ennustaa siis käyttäytymistyyliä. Näitä tyylejä ajatellaan yleensä olevan yhdeksän:

1. Perfektionisti

2. Auttaja

3. Suorittaja

4. Romantikko

5. Tarkkailija

6. Kyselijä

7. Seikkailija

8. Varma

9. Sovittelija




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