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MBTI - Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
ESFJ (Extraversion, Sensing, Feeling, Judgment) is an abbreviation used in publications of Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) to refer to one of sixteen personality types. MBTI assessment was developed from work of prominent psychiatrist Carl G. Jung in his book Psychological Types. Jung proposed a psychological typology based on ories of cognitive functions that he developed through his clinical observations.
From Jung's work, ors developed psychological typologies. Jungian personality assessments include MBTI assessment, developed by Isabel Briggs Myers and Katharine Cook Briggs, and Keirsey Temperament Sorter, developed by David Keirsey. Keirsey referred to ESFJs as Providers, one of four types belonging to temperament he called Guardians. ESFJs account for about 9–13% of population.
MBTI preferences indicate differences in people based on following:
By using ir preference in each of se areas, people develop what Jung and Myers called psychological type. This underlying personality pattern results from dynamic interaction of ir four preferences, in conjunction with environmental influences and ir own individual tendencies. People are likely to develop behaviors, skills, and attitudes based on ir particular type. Each personality type has its own potential strengths as well as areas that offer opportunities for growth.
MBTI tool consists of multiple choice questions that sort respondents on basis of four "dichotomies" (pairs of psychological opposites). Sixteen different outcomes are possible, each identified by its own four-letter code, referred to by initial letters. (N is used for iNtuition, to differentiate it from Introversion). MBTI is approximately 75% accurate according to its own manual.
E – Extraversion preferred to Introversion: ESFJs often feel motivated by ir interaction with people. y tend to enjoy a wide circle of acquaintances, and y gain energy in social situations (whereas introverts expend energy).
S – Sensing preferred to iNtuition: ESFJs tend to be more concrete than abstract. y focus ir attention on details rar than big picture, and on immediate realities rar than future possibilities .
F – Feeling preferred to Thinking: ESFJs tend to value personal considerations above objective criteria. When making decisions, y often give more weight to social implications than to logic.
J – Judgment preferred to Perception: ESFJs tend to plan ir activities and make decisions early. y derive a sense of control through predictability. 
ESFJs focus on outside world and assess ir experiences subjectively. y largely base ir judgments on ir belief system and on effects of actions on people. ESFJs are literal and concrete, trusting specific, factual information gared through ir physiological senses.
ESFJs project warmth through a genuine interest in well-being of ors. y are often skilled at bringing out best in people, and y want to understand or points of view. y are serious about ir responsibilities, seeing what needs to be done and n doing it. Generally proficient at detailed tasks, y enjoy doing little things that make life easier for ors. y value tradition and security it offers.
Easily hurt, ESFJs seek approval. y take pleasure in or people's happiness. y give generously but expect appreciation in return. Sensitive to physical needs of ors, y respond by offering practical care. As expert people readers, ESFJs often adapt ir manner to meet expectations of ors. However, y may have difficulty recognizing shortcomings of loved ones.
ESFJs tend to be vocal in expressing ir sense of right and wrong. ir value system derives from external standards defined by ir community, as opposed to a personal set of ethics. (This is one of traits that distinguishes m from ir ENFJ counterparts.) ESFJs raised in an environment of high ethical standards tend to display true generosity and kindness. However, those who grow up surrounded by a skewed set of values may develop a false sense of integrity and use ir people skills to selfishly manipulate ors—particularly if ir intuition is poorly developed, leaving m unable to foresee consequences of ir actions.
ESFJs seek structured, controlled environments, and tend to be good at creating a sense of order. y generally feel insecure in an atmosphere of uncertainty. y value rule of law and expect same of ors. ESFJs may be less interested in understanding concepts behind rules, tending to shy away from abstract and impersonal.
According to Baron and Wagele, most common Enneatypes for ESFJs are Helpers and Skeptics.
Drawing upon Jungian ory, Isabel Myers proposed that for each personality type, cognitive functions—sensing, intuition, thinking, and feeling—form a hierarchy. This hierarchy represents person's "default" pattern of behavior.
Dominant function is personality type's preferred role, one y feel most comfortable with. secondary Auxiliary function serves to support and expand on Dominant function. If Dominant is an information garing function (sensing or intuition), Auxiliary is a decision making function (thinking or feeling), and vice versa. Tertiary function is less developed than Dominant and Auxiliary, but it matures over time, rounding out person's abilities. Inferior function is personality type's Achilles' heel. This is function y are least comfortable with. Like Tertiary, Inferior function strengns with maturity.
Jung and Myers considered attitude of Auxiliary, Tertiary, and Inferior functions to be opposite of Dominant. In this interpretation, if Dominant function is extraverted, n or three are introverted, and vice versa. However, many modern practitioners hold that attitude of Tertiary function is same as Dominant. (Neir view is backed by sufficient empirical evidence to be considered scientifically valid.)
Using more modern interpretation, cognitive functions of ESFJ are as follows:
Fe seeks social connections and creates harmonious interactions through polite, considerate, and appropriate behavior. Fe responds to explicit (and implicit) wants of ors, and may even create an internal conflict between subject’s own needs and desire to meet needs of ors. 
Si collects data in present moment and compares it with past experiences, a process that sometimes evokes feelings associated with memory, as if subject were reliving it. Seeking to protect what is familiar, Si draws upon history to form goals and expectations about what will happen in future. 
Ne finds and interprets hidden meanings, using “what if” questions to explore alternatives, allowing multiple possibilities to coexist. This imaginative play weaves toger insights and experiences from various sources to form a new whole, which can n become a catalyst to action.
Ti seeks precision, such as exact word to express an idea. It notices minute distinctions that define essence of things, n analyzes and classifies m. Ti examines all sides of an issue, looking to solve problems while minimizing effort and risk. It uses models to root out logical inconsistency. 
Later personality researchers (notably Linda V. Berens) added four additional functions to descending hierarchy, so-called "shadow" functions to which individual is not naturally inclined but which can emerge when person is under stress. For ESFJ se shadow functions are (in order):
Introverted feeling (Fi): Fi filters information based on interpretations of worth, forming judgments according to criteria that are often intangible. Fi constantly balances an internal set of values such as harmony and aunticity. Attuned to subtle distinctions, Fi innately senses what is true and what is false in a situation. 
Extraverted sensing (Se): Se focuses on experiences and sensations of immediate, physical world. With an acute awareness of present surroundings, it brings relevant facts and details to forefront and may lead to spontaneous action. 
Introverted intuition (Ni): Attracted to symbolic actions or devices, Ni synsizes seeming paradoxes to create previously unimagined. se realizations come with a certainty that demands action to fulfill a new vision of future, solutions that may include complex systems or universal truths. 
Extraverted thinking (Te): Te organizes and schedules ideas and environment to ensure efficient, productive pursuit of objectives. Te seeks logical explanations for actions, events, and conclusions, looking for faulty reasoning and lapses in sequence. 
According to "Guidelines for Ethical Use for Certified MBTI Professionals", "only individual can verify his or her own best-fitting type." MBTI instrument focuses on cognitive processes, which are not observable, and refore speculation regarding anor person's type is not an appropriate use of instrument. Keirsey Temperament Sorter, however, focuses on behavior, which is observable. For illustrative purposes, some practitioners, as referenced below, have suggested that behavior of certain well-known individuals is consistent with a specific type. Unless orwise noted, categorization of individuals below, wher living or dead, as ESFJs is a matter of opinion rar than result of actual personality testing of named individual.
Carol_(Dilbert_character) Carol is Pointy-Haired Boss's misanthropic and bitter secretary in Dilbert comic strip, who feels she is underappreciated and demeaned by her job and refore takes out her frustration on all employees, especially her boss
^ "Keirsey.com Portrait of Provider". http://www.keirsey.com/handler.aspx?s=keirsey&f=fourtemps&tab=2&c=provider. Retrieved 10 January 2010.
^ "CAPT". http://www.capt.org/mbti-assessment/estimated-frequencies.htm. Retrieved 2008-10-13.
^ Myers, Isabel Briggs (1998). Introduction to Type: A Guide to Understanding your Results on Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Mountain View, CA: CPP, Inc..
^ a b Myers, Isabel Briggs; Mary H. McCaulley (1985) (in English). Manual: A Guide to Development and Use of Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (2nd edition ed.). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologist Press. pp. 52. ISBN 0-89106-027-8.
^ " Personality Junkie: Personality Type ory". http://personalityjunkie.com/personality-type-ory/. Retrieved 2009-11-22.
^ "Cognitive Processes: Extraverted Feeling". http://www.cognitiveprocesses.com/extravertedfeeling.html. Retrieved 2009-05-12.
^ "Cognitive Processes: Introverted sensing". http://www.cognitiveprocesses.com/introvertedsensing.html. Retrieved 2009-05-12.
^ "Cognitive Processes: Extraverted intuition". http://www.cognitiveprocesses.com/extravertedintuiting.html. Retrieved 2009-05-12.
^ "Cognitive Processes: Introverted thinking". http://www.cognitiveprocesses.com/introvertedthinking.html. Retrieved 2009-05-12.
^ "Cognitive Processes: Introverted feeling". http://www.cognitiveprocesses.com/introvertedfeeling.html. Retrieved 2009-05-12.
^ "Cognitive Processes: Extraverted Sensing". http://www.cognitiveprocesses.com/extravertedsensing.html. Retrieved 2009-05-12.
^ "Cognitive Processes: Introverted intuition". http://www.cognitiveprocesses.com/introvertedintuiting.html. Retrieved 2009-05-12.
^ "Cognitive Processes: Extraverted thinking". http://www.cognitiveprocesses.com/extravertedthinking.html. Retrieved 2009-05-12.
Providers take it
upon themselves to insure the health and welfare of those in their care, but
they are also the most sociable of all the Guardians, and thus are the great
nurturers of social institutions such as schools, churches, social clubs, and
civic groups. Providers are very likely more than ten percent of the population,
and this is fortunate for the rest of us, because friendly social service is a
key to their nature. Wherever they go, Providers happily give their time and
energy to make sure that the needs of others are met, and that social functions
are a success. Highly cooperative themselves, Providers are skilled in
maintaining teamwork among their helpers, and are also tireless in their
attention to the details of furnishing goods and services. They make excellent
chairpersons in charge of dances, banquets, class reunions, charity
fund-raisers, and the like. They are without peer as masters of ceremonies, able
to speak publicly with ease and confidence. And they are outstanding hosts or
hostesses, knowing everyone by name, and seemingly aware of what everyone's been
doing. Providers love to entertain, and are always concerned about the needs of
their guests, wanting to make sure that all are involved and provided for.
Friendly, outgoing, neighborly - in a word, Providers
are gregarious, so much so that they can become restless when isolated from
people. They love to talk with others, and will often strike up a conversation
with strangers and chat pleasantly about any topic that comes to mind.
Friendships matter a great deal to Providers, and their conversations with
friends often touch on good times from years past. Family traditions are also
sacred to them, and they carefully observe birthdays and anniversaries. In
addition, Providers show a delightful fascination with news of their friends and
neighbors. If we wish to know what's been going on in the local community,
school, or church, they're happy to fill us in on all the details. Providers are extremely sensitive to the feelings of
others, which makes them perhaps the most sympathetic of all the types, but
which also leaves them somewhat self-conscious, that is, highly sensitive to
what others think of them. Loving and affectionate themselves, they need to be
loved in return. In fact, Providers can be crushed by personal criticism, and
are happiest when given ample appreciation both for themselves personally and
for the tireless service they give to others. William Howard Taft, Barbara Walters, J C Penney, Ray
Kroc, Louis B. Mayer, Sam Walton, Dolley Madison, and Dave Thomas are examples
of Provider Guardians. A full description of the Provider and the Guardian is
in People Patterns or
Please Understand Me II More About Your Guardian Provider Personality: Receive Monthly Articles on Being A Guardian
Provider: The Keirsey
PersonalityZone Newsletter All Guardians (SJs)
share the following core characteristics: Guardians are the
cornerstone of society, for they are the temperament given to serving and
preserving our most important social institutions. Guardians have natural talent
in managing goods and services--from supervision to maintenance and supply --
and they use all their skills to keep things running smoothly in their families,
communities, schools, churches, hospitals, and businesses. Guardians can have a lot of fun with their friends, but
they are quite serious about their duties and responsibilities. Guardians take
pride in being dependable and trustworthy; if there's a job to be done, they can
be counted on to put their shoulder to the wheel. Guardians also believe in law
and order, and sometimes worry that respect for authority, even a fundamental
sense of right and wrong, is being lost. Perhaps this is why Guardians honor
customs and traditions so strongly -- they are familiar patterns that help bring
stability to our modern, fast-paced world. Practical and down-to-earth, Guardians believe in
following the rules and cooperating with others. They are not very comfortable
winging it or blazing new trails; working steadily within the system is the
Guardian way, for in the long run loyalty, discipline, and teamwork get the job
done right. Guardians are meticulous about schedules and have a sharp eye for
proper procedures. They are cautious about change, even though they know that
change can be healthy for an institution. Better to go slowly, they say, and
look before you leap. Guardians make up as much as 40 to 45 percent of the
population, and a good thing, because they usually end up doing all the
indispensable but thankless jobs the rest of us take for granted. Presidents
Harry S. Truman,
William Howard Taft and
Mother Teresa are examples of Guardians. A full description of the Guardian is in
People Patterns or
Please Understand Me II A
List of Famous Guardians
Guardian Quotes The
Guardians as mates
Best Job Fit for
Dealing With Stress at
Work: Guardians Bearing Up
Women and Romance -
Men and Romance - The
Love the One You're
With - Tips for Guardians With Non-Guardian Partners
Maximizing Your Study Environment
Capitalizing on Your Intelligence Style
Providers take it upon themselves to insure the health and welfare of those in their care, but they are also the most sociable of all the Guardians, and thus are the great nurturers of social institutions such as schools, churches, social clubs, and civic groups. Providers are very likely more than ten percent of the population, and this is fortunate for the rest of us, because friendly social service is a key to their nature. Wherever they go, Providers happily give their time and energy to make sure that the needs of others are met, and that social functions are a success.
Highly cooperative themselves, Providers are skilled in maintaining teamwork among their helpers, and are also tireless in their attention to the details of furnishing goods and services. They make excellent chairpersons in charge of dances, banquets, class reunions, charity fund-raisers, and the like. They are without peer as masters of ceremonies, able to speak publicly with ease and confidence. And they are outstanding hosts or hostesses, knowing everyone by name, and seemingly aware of what everyone's been doing. Providers love to entertain, and are always concerned about the needs of their guests, wanting to make sure that all are involved and provided for.
Friendly, outgoing, neighborly - in a word, Providers are gregarious, so much so that they can become restless when isolated from people. They love to talk with others, and will often strike up a conversation with strangers and chat pleasantly about any topic that comes to mind. Friendships matter a great deal to Providers, and their conversations with friends often touch on good times from years past. Family traditions are also sacred to them, and they carefully observe birthdays and anniversaries. In addition, Providers show a delightful fascination with news of their friends and neighbors. If we wish to know what's been going on in the local community, school, or church, they're happy to fill us in on all the details.
Providers are extremely sensitive to the feelings of others, which makes them perhaps the most sympathetic of all the types, but which also leaves them somewhat self-conscious, that is, highly sensitive to what others think of them. Loving and affectionate themselves, they need to be loved in return. In fact, Providers can be crushed by personal criticism, and are happiest when given ample appreciation both for themselves personally and for the tireless service they give to others.
William Howard Taft, Barbara Walters, J C Penney, Ray Kroc, Louis B. Mayer, Sam Walton, Dolley Madison, and Dave Thomas are examples of Provider Guardians.
A full description of the Provider and the Guardian is in People Patterns or Please Understand Me II
More About Your Guardian Provider Personality:
Receive Monthly Articles on Being A Guardian Provider: The Keirsey PersonalityZone Newsletter
All Guardians (SJs) share the following core characteristics:
Guardians are the cornerstone of society, for they are the temperament given to serving and preserving our most important social institutions. Guardians have natural talent in managing goods and services--from supervision to maintenance and supply -- and they use all their skills to keep things running smoothly in their families, communities, schools, churches, hospitals, and businesses.
Guardians can have a lot of fun with their friends, but they are quite serious about their duties and responsibilities. Guardians take pride in being dependable and trustworthy; if there's a job to be done, they can be counted on to put their shoulder to the wheel. Guardians also believe in law and order, and sometimes worry that respect for authority, even a fundamental sense of right and wrong, is being lost. Perhaps this is why Guardians honor customs and traditions so strongly -- they are familiar patterns that help bring stability to our modern, fast-paced world.
Practical and down-to-earth, Guardians believe in following the rules and cooperating with others. They are not very comfortable winging it or blazing new trails; working steadily within the system is the Guardian way, for in the long run loyalty, discipline, and teamwork get the job done right. Guardians are meticulous about schedules and have a sharp eye for proper procedures. They are cautious about change, even though they know that change can be healthy for an institution. Better to go slowly, they say, and look before you leap.
Guardians make up as much as 40 to 45 percent of the population, and a good thing, because they usually end up doing all the indispensable but thankless jobs the rest of us take for granted.
Presidents George Washington, Harry S. Truman, William Howard Taft and Mother Teresa are examples of Guardians.
A full description of the Guardian is in People Patterns or Please Understand Me II
A List of Famous Guardians
The Guardians as mates
Myers–Briggs-tyyppi-indikaattori (lyh. MBTI, engl. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator) on psykologinen indikaattori, joka kuvaa ihmisen persoonallisuutta neljän ulottuvuuden avulla. Indikaattorin kehitti Katherine Briggs tyttärensä Isabel Myersin kanssa toisen maailmansodan jälkeen saadakseen ihmiset ymmärtämään erilaisuutta ja tulemaan paremmin toimeen keskenään.
MBTI perustuu Carl Jungin teorioihin, joskin Briggs ja Myers lisäsivät ulottuvuuden järjestelmällinen–spontaani, koska Jungin rationaalisuus-käsite oli varsin vaikeaselkoinen. Indikaattorin kysymysten perusteella selvitetään, kumpaa preferenssiä (I–E, S–N, T–F ja J–P) koehenkilö luontevammin jokaisessa neljässä ulottuvuudessa käyttää. Persoonallisuudella tarkoitetaan luonteenpiirteitä, ominaisuuksia ja suhteellisen pysyviä käyttäytymismuotoja, mutta persoonallisuuden dynamiikka otetaan huomioon. MBTI:n mukaan persoonalisuus ei siis ole "pysäytyskuva", kuten piirretesteissä.
Kirjainlyhenteet tulevat seuraavista englanninkielisistä sanoista:
Sensing (S) / iNtuition (N)
Thinking (T) / Feeling (F)
Judgment (J) / Perception (P)
ISTJ eli tunnollinen
ISTP eli sentaja
ESTP eli toimija
ESTJ eli vartija
ISFJ eli suojelija
ISFP eli taiteilija
ESFP eli esiintyjä
ESFJ eli hoitaja
INFJ eli turvaaja
INFP eli idealisti
ENFP eli innoittaja
ENFJ eli antelias
INTJ eli tutkija
INTP eli ajattelija
ENTP eli edelläkävijä
ISTJ on analyyttinen tosiasioiden ja yksityiskohtien johtaja.
ISTP on käytännöllinen analysoija.
ESTP on realistinen sopeutuja aineellisten asioiden maailmassa.
ESTJ on tosiasioihin nojautuva käytännöllinen organisoija.
ISFJ on sympaattinen tosiasioiden ja yksityiskohtien johtana.
ISFP on tarkkaavainen ja uskollinen auttaja.
ESFP on realistinen sopeutuja ihmissuhteissa.
ESFJ on käytännöllinen yhteensovittaja.
INFJ on ihmiskeskeinen ideoiden keksijä.
INFP on mielikuvituksellinen ja itsenäinen auttaja
ENFP on lämpimästi innokas muutoksen suunnittelija.
ENFJ on mielikuvituksellinen yhteensovittaja.
INTJ on looginen, kriittinen ja päättäväinen ideoiden keksijä.
INTP on tiedonhaluinen analysoija.
ENTP on kekseliäs ja analyyttinen muutoksen suunnittelija.
I–E-ulottuvuus kuvaa asennetta ympäristöön. S–N-ulottuvuus kuvaa tiedonhankintatottumuksia ja T–F-ulottuvuus päätöksenteon perusteita. J–P-ulottuvuus kuvaa elämäntyyliä.
Ekstravertti (E) tuntee todennäköisesti olonsa kotoisammaksi ihmisten ja asioiden kanssa ulkomaailmassa kuin ideoiden sisäisessä maailmassa, "ulospäinsuuntautunut".
Introvertti (I) tuntee todennäköisesti olonsa kotoisammaksi sisäisessä ideamaailmassa kuin ihmisten ja asioiden ulkomaailmassa, "sisäänpäinsuuntautunut".
Tosiasiallinen (S) työskentelee todennäköisesti mieluummin tunnettujen tosiasioiden parissa kuin etsii mahdollisuuksia ja keskinäisiä suhteita.
Intuitiivinen (N) etsii mieluummin mahdollisuuksia ja yhteyksiä kuin työstää tunnettuja faktoja, tulevaisuuteen suuntautunut.
Ajatteleva (T) tekee päätökset todennäköisemmin persoonattoman analyysin kuin henkilökohtaisten arvojen perusteella.
Tunteva (F) tekee päätökset todennäköisemmin henkilökohtaisten arvojen kuin persoonattoman logiikan avulla.
Järjestelmällinen (J) pitää todennäköisesti enemmän suunnitellusta, organisoidusta, selvästä ja täsmällisestä elämäntavasta kuin joustavasta ja spontaanista.
Spontaani (P) pitää todennäköisesti enemmän joustavasta ja spontaanista elämäntavasta kuin suunnitellusta ja järjestelmällisestä.
Huomattakoon, että piirretestien "ekstrovertti" kuvaa enemmänkin eräänlaista sosiaalisuutta, kun taas MBTI:n ekstravertti kuvaa suuntautumista ulkoiseen asioiden ja ihmisten maailmaan ottamatta varsinaisesti kantaa sosiaalisuuteen.
Neljä ulottuvuutta ja kahdeksan preferenssiä muodostavat 16 persoonallisuustyyppiä, joihin liittyy paljon preferenssien mukaisia yhteisiä piirteitä ja käyttäytymistapoja, vaikka tyypin sisällä olevat henkilöt ovat kukin omia erilaisia yksilöitään. MBTI on ainoa dynaaminen persoonallisuusindikaattori, joka kuvaa henkilön persoonallisuuden preferenssijärjestyksen ja se mukaisen käyttäytymisen niin tiedostetussa "normaalitilassa" kuin syystä tai toisesta ajauduttaessa vähemmän tiedostettujen "varjopersoonien" tasolle. MBTI:n ulottuvuuksia voidaan osittain kuvata myös "viiden suuren persoonallisuudenpiirteen" (engl. big five) ulottuvuuksilla.
Teoria viidestä suuresta persoonallisuuden piirteestä on McCraen & Costan käsityksen mukaan saanut persoonallisuuden tutkimuksessa enemmän tukea kuin Jungin luokitukseen perustuva teoria (mm. persoonallisuuden piirteitä pidetään jatkuvina, ei dikotomisina ominaisuuksina; mukana on myös viides neuroottisuus-ulottuvuus). MBTI:n kehittämistä tuntevat voivat kuitenkin havaita MBTI:n toimivuuden ja käyttökelpoisuuden verrattuna muihin persoonallisuuden tarkastelutapoihin. Vaikka esimerkiksi ulottuuvuuksia ilmaistaan dikotomialla kuvaamaan ihmisen luontaista taipumusta "kallistua" ulottuuvuuden jommankumman ääripään suuntaan, on MBTI ainut dynaaminen malli, joka selittää ihmisen persoonallisuuden kokonaisuuden, myös ulottuvuuksien "heikomman pään" käytön. Patologiset ja piirretestit eivät ilmennä persoonallisuuden dynamiikkaa. MBTI:n erinomainen toimivuus on osoitettu runsaassa suomalaisessa tutkimuksessa.
Satunnaisesti valitussa amerikkalaista väestöä kuvaavassa otoksessa tyypit jakautuivat seuraavasti (jakauma eroaa melkoisesti suomalaisesta työelämässä toimivasta väestöstä; huomautus V. Routamaa):
Routamaa, V. & Hautala, T. M.: Katse naamion taa: Itsetuntemuksesta voimaa. LEADEC Publications, 2009.
McCrae, R R; Costa, P T (1989) Reinterpreting the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator From the Perspective of the Five-Factor Model of Personality. Journal of Personality, 57(1):17–40.
Myers, I. & McCaulley, M.H. (1990). Manual: A Guide to the Development and Use of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. CA: Consulting Psychologists Press, Inc.
Myers, Isabel & Mary H. McCalley & Naomi L. Quenk & Allen L. Hammer (1998): MBTI Manual. 3rd ed. California: Consulting Psychologists Press, Inc.
↑ Esimerkiksi Routamaa & Hautala 2009.
↑ Esimerkiksi Myers & McCalley & Quenk & Hammer 1998.
↑ McCrae & Costa, 1989.
↑ Esimerkiksi Myers & McCaulley 1990; Myers & McCalley & Quenk & Hammer 1998.
Lyhyt temperamenttitesti jungilaisilla kysymyksillä (en)
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) assessment is a psychometric questionnaire designed to measure psychological preferences in how people perceive world and make decisions.:1 se preferences were extrapolated from typological ories originated by Carl Gustav Jung, as published in his 1921 book Psychological Types (English edition, 1923). original developers of personality inventory were Katharine Cook Briggs and her daughter, Isabel Briggs Myers. y began creating indicator during World War II, believing that a knowledge of personality preferences would help women who were entering industrial workforce for first time to identify sort of war-time jobs where y would be "most comfortable and effective.":xiii initial questionnaire grew into Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, which was first published in 1962. MBTI focuses on normal populations and emphasizes value of naturally occurring differences.
MBTI instrument is called " best-known and most trusted personality assessment tool available today" by its publisher, CPP (formerly Consulting Psychologists Press). CPP furr calls MBTI tool " world’s most widely used personality assessment", with as many as two million assessments administered annually. Some academic psychologists have criticized MBTI instrument, claiming that it "lacks convincing validity data". Proponents of test, however, cite reports of individual behavior and have also found that indicator meets or exceeds reliability of or psychological instruments. For most adults (75–90%), though not for children, MBTI is reported to give same result for 3–4 preferences when test is administered to same person more than once (although period between measurements is not stated). Some studies have found strong support for construct validity, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability, although variation was observed.
definitive published source of reference for Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is Manual produced by CPP, from which much of information in this article is drawn, along with training materials from CPP and ir European training partners, Oxford Psychologists Press. Also, a related model, with an original test, is published in David Keirsey's books Please Understand Me and Please Understand Me II.
registered trademark rights to terms Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and MBTI have been assigned from publisher of test, CPP, Inc., to Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Trust.
As MBTI Manual states, MBTI "is designed to implement a ory; refore ory must be understood to understand MBTI.":1
Fundamental to Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is ory of psychological type as originally developed by Carl Jung.:xiii Jung proposed existence of two dichotomous pairs of cognitive functions:
"rational" (judging) functions: thinking and feeling
"irrational" (perceiving) functions: sensing and intuition
Jung went on to suggest that se functions are expressed in eir an introverted or extraverted form.:17 From Jung's original concepts, Briggs and Myers developed ir own ory of psychological type, described below, on which MBTI is based.
Myers-Briggs typology model regards personality type as similar to left or right handedness: individuals are eir born with, or develop, certain preferred ways of thinking and acting. MBTI sorts some of se psychological differences into four opposite pairs, or dichotomies, with a resulting 16 possible psychological types. None of se types are "better" or "worse"; however, Briggs and Myers orized that individuals naturally prefer one overall combination of type differences.:9 In same way that writing with left hand is hard work for a right-hander, so people tend to find using ir opposite psychological preferences more difficult, even if y can become more proficient (and refore behaviorally flexible) with practice and development.
16 types are typically referred to by an abbreviation of four letters— initial letters of each of ir four type preferences (except in case of iNtuition, which uses abbreviation N to distinguish it from Introversion).
ESTJ - Extraversion, Sensing, Thinking, Judgment
INFP - Introversion, iNtuition, Feeling, Perception
And so on for all 16 possible type combinations.
four pairs of preferences or dichotomies are shown in table to right.
Note that terms used for each dichotomy have specific technical meanings relating to MBTI which differ from ir everyday usage. For example, people who prefer judgment over perception are not necessarily more judgmental or less perceptive.
Nor does MBTI instrument measure aptitude; it simply indicates for one preference over anor.:3 Someone reporting a high score for extraversion over introversion cannot be correctly described as more extraverted: y simply have a clear preference.
Point scores on each of dichotomies can vary considerably from person to person, even among those with same type. However, Isabel Myers considered direction of preference (for example, E vs. I) to be more important than degree of preference (for example, very clear vs. slight).
preferences for extraversion (thus spelled in Myers-Briggs jargon) and introversion are sometimes referred to as attitudes. Briggs and Myers recognized that each of cognitive functions can operate in external world of behavior, action, people, and things (extraverted attitude) or internal world of ideas and reflection (introverted attitude). Myers-Briggs Type Indicator sorts for an overall preference for one or or of se.
terms extravert and introvert are used in a special sense when discussing Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. People who prefer extraversion draw energy from action: y tend to act, n reflect, n act furr. If y are inactive, ir motivation tends to decline. To rebuild ir energy, extraverts need breaks from time spent in reflection. Conversely, those who prefer introversion expend energy through action: y prefer to reflect, n act, n reflect again. To rebuild ir energy, introverts need quiet time alone, away from activity.
extravert's flow is directed outward toward people and objects, and introvert's is directed inward toward concepts and ideas. Contrasting characteristics between extraverts and introverts include following:
Extraverts are action oriented, while introverts are thought oriented.
Extraverts and seek breadth of knowledge and influence, while introverts seek depth of knowledge and influence.
Extraverts often prefer more frequent interaction, while introverts prefer more substantial interaction.
Jung identified two pairs of psychological functions:
two perceiving functions, sensing and intuition
two judging functions, thinking and feeling
According to Myers-Briggs typology model, each person uses one of se four functions more dominantly and proficiently than or three; however, all four functions are used at different times depending on circumstances.
Sensing and intuition are information-garing (perceiving) functions. y describe how new information is understood and interpreted. Individuals who prefer sensing are more likely to trust information that is in present, tangible and concrete: that is, information that can be understood by five senses. y tend to distrust hunches, which seem to come "out of nowhere.":2 y prefer to look for details and facts. For m, meaning is in data. On or hand, those who prefer intuition tend to trust information that is more abstract or oretical, that can be associated with or information (eir remembered or discovered by seeking a wider context or pattern). y may be more interested in future possibilities. y tend to trust those flashes of insight that seem to bubble up from unconscious mind. meaning is in how data relates to pattern or ory.
Thinking and feeling are decision-making (judging) functions. thinking and feeling functions are both used to make rational decisions, based on data received from ir information-garing functions (sensing or intuition). Those who prefer thinking tend to decide things from a more detached standpoint, measuring decision by what seems reasonable, logical, causal, consistent and matching a given set of rules. Those who prefer feeling tend to come to decisions by associating or empathizing with situation, looking at it 'from inside' and weighing situation to achieve, on balance, greatest harmony, consensus and fit, considering needs of people involved.
As noted already, people who prefer thinking do not necessarily, in everyday sense, "think better" than ir feeling counterparts; opposite preference is considered an equally rational way of coming to decisions (and, in any case, MBTI assessment is a measure of preference, not ability). Similarly, those who prefer feeling do not necessarily have "better" emotional reactions than ir thinking counterparts.
Although people use all four cognitive functions, one function is generally used in a more conscious and confident way. This dominant function is supported by secondary (auxiliary) function, and to a lesser degree tertiary function. fourth and least conscious function is always opposite of dominant function. Myers called this inferior function shadow.:84
four functions operate in conjunction with attitudes (extraversion and introversion). Each function is used in eir an extraverted or introverted way. A person whose dominant function is extraverted intuition, for example, uses intuition very differently from someone whose dominant function is introverted intuition.
Myers and Briggs added anor dimension to Jung's typological model by identifying that people also have a preference for using eir judging function (thinking or feeling) or ir perceiving function (sensing or intuition) when relating to outside world (extraversion).
Myers and Briggs held that types with a preference for judgment show world ir preferred judging function (thinking or feeling). So TJ types tend to appear to world as logical, and FJ types as empatic. According to Myers,:75 judging types like to "have matters settled." Those types who prefer perception show world ir preferred perceiving function (sensing or intuition). So SP types tend to appear to world as concrete and NP types as abstract. According to Myers,:75 perceptive types prefer to "keep decisions open."
For extraverts, J or P indicates ir dominant function; for introverts, J or P indicates ir auxiliary function. Introverts tend to show ir dominant function outwardly only in matters "important to ir inner worlds.":13 For example:
Because ENTJ types are extraverts, J indicates that ir dominant function is ir preferred judging function (extraverted thinking). ENTJ types introvert ir auxiliary perceiving function (introverted intuition). tertiary function is sensing and inferior function is introverted feeling.
Because INTJ types are introverts, J indicates that ir auxiliary function is ir preferred judging function (extraverted thinking). INTJ types introvert ir dominant perceiving function (introverted intuition). tertiary function is feeling, and inferior function is extraverted sensing.
expression of a person's psychological type is more than sum of four individual preferences, because of way in which preferences interact through type dynamics and type development. Descriptions of each type can be found on Myers & Briggs Foundation website. In-depth descriptions of each type, including statistics, can be found in MBTI Manual.
Katharine Cook Briggs began her research into personality in 1917. Upon meeting her future son-in-law, she observed marked differences between his personality and that of or family members. Briggs embarked on a project of reading biographies, and she developed a typology based on patterns she found. She proposed four temperaments: Meditative (or Thoughtful), Spontaneous, Executive, and Social. n, after English translation of Psychological Types was published in 1923 (having first been published in German in 1921), she recognized that Jung's ory was similar to, yet went far beyond, her own.:22 Briggs's four types were later identified as corresponding to Is, EPs, ETJs and EFJs. Her first publications were two articles describing Jung's ory, in journal New Republic in 1926 (Meet Yourself Using Personality Paint Box) and 1928 (Up From Barbarism).
Briggs's daughter, Isabel Briggs Myers, added to her mor's typological research, which she would progressively take over entirely. Myers graduated first in her class from Swarthmore College in 1919:xx and wrote prize-winning mystery novel Murder Yet to Come in 1929 using typological ideas. However, neir Myers nor Briggs were formally educated in psychology, and thus y lacked scientific credentials in field of psychometric testing.:xiii So Myers apprenticed herself to Edward N. Hay, who was n personnel manager for a large Philadelphia bank and went on to start one of first successful personnel consulting firms in U.S. From Hay, Myers learned test construction, scoring, validation, and statistics.:xiii, xx In 1942, "Briggs-Myers Type Indicator" was created, and Briggs Myers Type Indicator Handbook was published in 1944. indicator changed its name to modern form (Myers-Briggs Type Indicator) in 1956.
Myers' work attracted attention of Henry Chauncey, head of Educational Testing Service, and under se auspices, first MBTI Manual was published in 1962. MBTI received furr support from Donald T. McKinnon, head of Institute of Personality Research at University of California; Harold Grant, professor at Michigan State and Auburn Universities; and Mary H. McCaulley of University of Florida. publication of MBTI was transferred to Consulting Psychologists Press in 1975, and Center for Applications of Psychological Type (CAPT) was founded as a research laboratory.:xxi After Myers' death in May 1980, Mary McCaulley updated MBTI Manual, and second edition was published in 1985. third edition appeared in 1998.
most notable addition of Myers and Briggs to Jung's original thought is ir concept that a given type's fourth letter (J or P) is determined by how that type interacts with external world, rar than by type's dominant function. difference becomes evident when assessing cognitive functions of introverts.:21-22
To Jung, a type with dominant introverted thinking, for example, would be considered rational (judging) because decision-making function is dominant. To Myers, however, that same type would be irrational (perceiving) because individual uses an information-garing function (eir extraverted intuition or extraverted sensing) when interacting with outer world.
of tertiary function
Jung orized that dominant function acts alone in its preferred world: exterior for extraverts, and interior for introverts. remaining three functions, he suggested, operate toger in opposite world. If dominant cognitive function is introverted, or functions are extraverted, and vice versa. MBTI Manual summarizes references in Jung's work to balance in psychological type as follows:
re are several references in Jung's writing to three remaining functions having an opposite attitudinal character. For example, in writing about introverts with thinking dominant...Jung commented that counterbalancing functions have an extraverted character.:29
However, many MBTI practitioners hold that tertiary function is oriented in same direction as dominant function. Using INTP type as an example, orientation would be as follows:
Dominant introverted thinking
Auxiliary extraverted intuition
Tertiary introverted sensing
Inferior extraverted feeling
From a oretical perspective, noted psychologist H.J. Eysenck calls MBTI a moderately successful quantification of Jung's original principles as outlined in Psychological Types. However, both models remain ory, with no controlled scientific studies supporting eir Jung's original concept of type or Myers-Briggs variation.
indicator is frequently used in areas of pedagogy, career counseling, team building, group dynamics, professional development, marketing, leadership training, executive coaching, life coaching, personal development, marriage counseling, and workers' compensation claims.
current North American English version of MBTI Step I includes 93 forced-choice questions (re are 88 in European English version). Forced-choice means that individual has to choose only one of two possible answers to each question. choices are a mixture of word pairs and short statements. Choices are not literal opposites but chosen to reflect opposite preferences on same dichotomy. Participants may skip questions if y feel y are unable to choose.
Using psychometric techniques, such as item response ory, MBTI will n be scored and will attempt to identify preference, and clarity of preference, in each dichotomy. After taking MBTI, participants are usually asked to complete a Best Fit exercise (see above) and n given a readout of ir Reported Type, which will usually include a bar graph and number to show how clear y were about each preference when y completed questionnaire.
During early development of MBTI thousands of items were used. Most were eventually discarded because y did not have high midpoint discrimination, meaning results of that one item did not, on average, move an individual score away from midpoint. Using only items with high midpoint discrimination allows MBTI to have fewer items on it but still provide as much statistical information as or instruments with many more items with lower midpoint discrimination. MBTI requires five points one way or anor to indicate a clear preference.
Isabel Myers had noted that people of any given type shared differences as well as similarities. At time of her death, she was developing a more in-depth method of measuring how people express and experience ir individual type pattern. This tool is called MBTI Step II.
A Step III is also being developed in a joint project involving following organizations: CPP, publisher of whole family of MBTI works; CAPT (Center for Applications of Psychological Type), which holds all of Myers' and McCaulley's original work; and MBTI Trust, headed by Katharine and Peter Myers. Step III will furr address use of perception and judgment by respondents.
In addition, Type Differentiation Indicator (TDI) (Saunders, 1989) is a scoring system for longer MBTI, Form J, which includes 20 subscales above, plus a Comfort-Discomfort factor (which purportedly corresponds to missing factor of Neuroticism). This factor includes seven additional scales to indicate a sense of overall comfort and confidence versus discomfort and anxiety: guarded-optimistic, defiant-compliant, carefree-worried, decisive-ambivalent, intrepid-inhibited, leader-follower, and proactive-distractible. Also included is a composite of se called "strain." Each of se comfort-discomfort subscales also loads onto one of four type dimensions, for example, proactive-distractible is also a judging-perceiving subscale. re are also scales for type-scale consistency and comfort-scale consistency. Reliability of 23 of 27 TDI subscales is greater than .50, "an acceptable result given brevity of subscales" (Saunders, 1989).
following precepts are generally used in ethical administration of Myers-Briggs Type Indicator:
MBTI sorts for type; it does not indicate strength of ability. questionnaire allows clarity of a preference to be ascertained (Bill clearly prefers introversion), but not strength of preference (Jane strongly prefers extraversion) or degree of aptitude (Harry is good at thinking). In this sense, it differs from trait-based tools such as 16PF. Type preferences are polar opposites: a precept of MBTI is that people fundamentally prefer one thing over or, not a bit of both.
Individuals are considered best judge of ir own type. While MBTI questionnaire provides a Reported Type, this is considered only an indication of ir probable overall Type. A Best Fit Process is usually used to allow respondents to develop ir understanding of four dichotomies, to form ir own hyposis as to ir overall Type, and to compare this against Reported Type. In more than 20% of cases, hyposis and Reported Type differ in one or more dichotomies. Using clarity of each preference, any potential for bias in report, and often, a comparison of two or more whole Types may n help respondents determine ir own Best Fit.
No preference or total type is considered "better" or "worse" than anor. y are all Gifts Differing, as emphasized by title of Isabel Briggs Myers' book on this subject.
It is considered unethical to compel anyone to take Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. It should always be taken voluntarily.
result of MBTI Reported and Best Fit type are confidential between individual and administrator and, ethically, not for disclosure without permission.
results of assessment should not be used to "label, evaluate, or limit respondent in any way." Since all types are valuable, and MBTI measures preferences rar than aptitude, MBTI is not considered a proper instrument for purposes of employment selection. Many professions contain highly competent individuals of different types with complementary preferences.
Individuals should always be given detailed feedback from a trained administrator and an opportunity to undertake a Best Fit exercise to check against ir Reported Type. This feedback can be given in person or, where this is not practical, by telephone or electronically.
interaction of two, three, or four preferences is known as type dynamics. Although type dynamics has garnered little or no empirical support to substantiate its viability as a scientific ory, Myers and Briggs asserted that for each of 16 four-preference types, one function is most dominant and is likely to be evident earliest in life. A secondary or auxiliary function typically becomes more evident (differentiated) during teenage years and provides balance to dominant. In normal development individuals tend to become more fluent with a third, tertiary function during mid life, while fourth, inferior function remains least consciously developed. inferior function is often considered to be more associated with unconscious, being most evident in situations such as high stress (sometimes referred to as being in grip of inferior function).
sequence of differentiation of dominant, auxiliary, and tertiary functions through life is termed type development. Note that this is an idealized sequence that may be disrupted by major life events.
dynamic sequence of functions and ir attitudes can be determined in following way:
overall lifestyle preference (J-P) determines wher judging (T-F) or perceiving (S-N) preference is most evident in outside world, i.e., which function has an extraverted attitude
attitude preference (E-I) determines wher extraverted function is dominant or auxiliary
For those with an overall preference for extraversion, function with extraverted attitude will be dominant function. For example, for an ESTJ type dominant function is judging function, thinking, and this is experienced with an extraverted attitude. This is notated as a dominant Te. For an ESTP, dominant function is perceiving function, sensing, notated as a dominant Se.
Auxiliary function for extraverts is secondary preference of judging or perceiving functions, and it is experienced with an introverted attitude: for example, auxiliary function for ESTJ is introverted sensing (Si) and auxiliary for ESTP is introverted thinking (Ti).
For those with an overall preference for introversion, function with extraverted attitude is auxiliary; dominant is or function in main four letter preference. So dominant function for ISTJ is introverted sensing (Si) with auxiliary (supporting) function being extraverted thinking (Te).
Tertiary function is opposite preference from Auxiliary. For example, if Auxiliary is thinking n Tertiary would be feeling. attitude of Tertiary is subject of some debate and refore is not normally indicated, i.e. if Auxiliary was Te n Tertiary would be F (not Fe or Fi)
Inferior function is opposite preference and attitude from Dominant, so for an ESTJ with dominant Te Inferior would be Fi.
Note that for extraverts, dominant function is one most evident in external world. For introverts, however, it is auxiliary function that is most evident externally, as ir dominant function relates to interior world.
Some examples of whole types may clarify this furr. Taking ESTJ example above:
Extraverted function is a judging function (T-F) because of overall J preference
Extraverted function is dominant because of overall E preference
Dominant function is refore extraverted thinking (Te)
Auxiliary function is preferred perceiving function: introverted sensing (Si)
Tertiary function is opposite of Auxiliary: intuition
Inferior function is opposite of Dominant: introverted feeling (Fi)
dynamics of ESTJ are found in primary combination of extraverted thinking as ir dominant function and introverted sensing as ir auxiliary function: dominant tendency of ESTJs to order ir environment, to set clear boundaries, to clarify roles and timetables, and to direct activities around m is supported by ir facility for using past experience in an ordered and systematic way to help organize mselves and ors. For instance, ESTJs may enjoy planning trips for groups of people to achieve some goal or to perform some culturally uplifting function. Because of ir ease in directing ors and ir facility in managing ir own time, y engage all resources at ir disposal to achieve ir goals. However, under prolonged stress or sudden trauma, ESTJs may overuse ir extraverted thinking function and fall into grip of ir inferior function, introverted feeling. Although ESTJ can seem insensitive to feelings of ors in ir normal activities, under tremendous stress, y can suddenly express feelings of being unappreciated or wounded by insensitivity.
Looking at diametrically opposite four-letter type, INFP:
Extraverted function is a perceiving function (S-N) because of P preference
Introverted function is dominant because of I preference
Dominant function is refore introverted feeling (Fi)
Auxiliary function is extraverted intuition (Ne)
Tertiary function is opposite of Auxiliary: sensing
Inferior function is opposite of Dominant: extraverted thinking (Te)
dynamics of INFP rest on fundamental correspondence of introverted feeling and extraverted intuition. dominant tendency of INFP is toward building a rich internal framework of values and toward championing human rights. y often devote mselves behind scenes to causes such as civil rights or saving environment. Since y tend to avoid limelight, postpone decisions, and maintain a reserved posture, y are rarely found in executive-director type positions of organizations that serve those causes. Normally, INFP dislikes being "in charge" of things. When not under stress, INFP radiates a pleasant and sympatic demeanor; but under extreme stress, y can suddenly become rigid and directive, exerting ir extraverted thinking erratically.
Every type—and its opposite—is expression of se interactions, which give each type its unique, recognizable signature.
Or personality type instruments based on Myers-Briggs ory include Golden Personality Type Profile and Majors Personality Type Indicator.
Some have orized that cognitive functions may correlate to Lateralization of brain function. Ors claim, however, that this proposed correlation has no scientific basis.
David W. Keirsey mapped four 'temperaments' to existing Myers-Briggs system groupings SP, SJ, NF and NT; this often results in confusion of two ories. However, Keirsey Temperament Sorter is not directly associated with official Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.
Inspector Protector Counselor Mastermind
Crafter Composer Healer Architect
Promoter Performer Champion Inventor
Supervisor Provider Teacher Fieldmarshal
McCrae and Costa present correlations between MBTI scales and Big Five personality construct, which is a conglomeration of characteristics found in nearly all personality and psychological tests. five personality characteristics are extraversion, openness, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and emotional stability (or neuroticism). following study is based on results from 267 men followed as part of a longitudinal study of aging. (Similar results were obtained with 201 women.)
se data suggest that four of MBTI scales are related to Big Five personality traits. se correlations show that E-I and S-N are strongly related to extraversion and openness respectively, while T-F and J-P are moderately related to agreeableness and conscientiousness respectively. emotional stability dimension of Big Five is largely absent from original MBTI (though TDI, discussed above, has addressed that dimension).
se findings led McCrae and Costa, formulators of Five Factor ory, to conclude, "correlational analyses showed that four MBTI indices did measure aspects of four of five major dimensions of normal personality. five-factor model provides an alternative basis for interpreting MBTI findings within a broader, more commonly shared conceptual framework." However, "re was no support for view that MBTI measures truly dichotomous preferences or qualitatively distinct types, instead, instrument measures four relatively independent dimensions."
Jung's ory of psychological type, as published in his 1921 book, was not tested through controlled scientific studies. Jung's methods primarily included clinical observation, introspection and anecdote—methods that are largely regarded as inconclusive by modern field of psychology.
Jung's type ory introduced a sequence of four cognitive functions (thinking, feeling, sensing, and intuition), each having one of two orientations (extraverted or introverted), for a total of eight functions. Myers-Briggs ory is based on se eight functions, although with some differences in expression (see Differences from Jung above). However, neir Myers-Briggs nor Jungian models offer any scientific, experimental proof to support existence, sequence, orientation, or manifestation of se functions.
statistical validity of MBTI as a psychometric instrument has been subject of criticism. It has been estimated that between a third and a half of published material on MBTI has been produced for conferences of Center for Application of Psychological Type (which provides training in MBTI) or as papers in Journal of Psychological Type (which is edited by Myers-Briggs advocates). It has been argued that this reflects a lack of critical scrutiny.
accuracy of MBTI depends on honest self-reporting by person tested.:52-53 Unlike some personality measures, such as Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory or Personality Assessment Inventory, MBTI does not use validity scales to assess exaggerated or socially desirable responses. As a result, individuals motivated to do so can fake ir responses, and one study found that MBTI judgment/perception dimension correlates with Eysenck Personality Questionnaire lie scale. If respondents "fear y have something to lose, y may answer as y assume y should.":53
With regard to factor analysis, one study of 1291 college-aged students found six different factors instead of four used in MBTI. In or studies, researchers found that JP and SN scales correlate with one anor.
Some researchers have interpreted reliability of test as being low. Studies have found that between 39% and 76% of those tested fall into different types upon retesting some weeks or years later.
One study reports that MBTI dichotomies exhibit good split-half reliability; however, dichotomy scores are distributed in a bell curve, and overall type allocations are less reliable. Also, test-retest reliability is sensitive to time between tests. Within each dichotomy scale, as measured on Form G, about 83% of categorizations remain same when individuals are retested within nine months, and around 75% when individuals are retested after nine months. About 50% of people tested within nine months remain same overall type, and 36% remain same type after more than nine months. For Form M ( most current form of MBTI instrument), se scores are higher (see MBTI Manual, p. 163, Table 8.6).
In one study, when people were asked to compare ir preferred type to that assigned by MBTI, only half of people picked same profile. Critics also argue that MBTI lacks falsifiability, which can cause confirmation bias in interpretation of results.
instrument's dichotomous scoring of dimensions has also been subject to criticism. For example, some researchers expected that scores would show a bimodal distribution with peaks near ends of scales, but found that scores on individual subscales were actually distributed in a centrally peaked manner similar to a normal distribution. A cut-off exists at center of subscale such that a score on one side is classified as one type, and a score on or side as opposite type. This fails to support concept of type: norm is for people to lie near middle of subscale. Neverless, " absence of bimodal score distributions does not necessarily prove that 'type'-based approach is incorrect."
relevance of MBTI for career planning has been questioned, with reservations about relevance of type to job performance or satisfaction, and concerns about potential misuse of instrument in labeling individuals. In her original research, Isabel Myers found that proportion of different personality types varied by choice of career or course of study.:40-51 However, some or researchers examining proportions of each type within varying professions report that proportion of MBTI types within each occupation is close to that within a random sample of population.
Also, efficiency of MBTI in an organizational setting has been subject to scrutiny. In 1991 three scholars at University of Western Ontario analyzed results of 97 independent studies that evaluated effectiveness of personality tests in predicting job success and job satisfaction ("Personnel Psychology," winter 1991). results of nationwide study challenged effectiveness of MBTI when related to individual performance and satisfaction in a corporate setting.
“ validity coefficient for personality tests in predicting job success was found to average 0.29 (on a scale of 0 to 1). corresponding average validity for MBTI, however, was a weak 0.12. In fact, each study that examined MBTI found its validity to be below acceptable levels of statistical significance.”
However, as noted above under Precepts and ethics, MBTI measures preference, not ability. use of MBTI as a predictor of job success is expressly discouraged in Manual.:78 It is not designed to be used for this purpose.
Skeptics criticize terminology of MBTI as being so "vague and general" as to allow any kind of behavior to fit any personality type. y claim that this results in Forer effect, where individuals give a high rating to a positive description that supposedly applies specifically to m. Ors argue that while MBTI type descriptions are brief, y are also distinctive and precise.:14-15 Some orists, such as David Keirsey, have expanded on MBTI descriptions, providing even greater detail. For instance, Keirsey's descriptions of his four temperaments, which he correlated with sixteen MBTI personality types, show how temperaments differ in terms of language use, intellectual orientation, educational and vocational interests, social orientation, self image, personal values, social roles, and characteristic hand gestures.:32-207
Kingdomality Personal Preference Profile
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^ Eysenck, H.J.. Genius: Natural History of Creativity (1995 ed.). pp. 110.
^ [http://harvey.psyc.vt.edu/Documents/BessHarveySwartzSIOP2003.pdf ""Hierarchical Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Myers-Briggs Type Indicator""] (PDF). http://harvey.psyc.vt.edu/Documents/BessHarveySwartzSIOP2003.pdf. Retrieved 2008-09-14.
^ " Personality Junkie: Personality Type ory". http://personalityjunkie.com/personality-type-ory/. Retrieved 2009-11-22.
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^ Boyle, G J (1995). "Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI): Some psychometric limitations". Australian Psychologist 30: 71–74.
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Assessing type in children
Criticism of MBTI
Jungian typology assessments
(note that some or assessments offered on se sites may not be free)
ENNEAGRAMMI & ENNEAGRAMMIT
Enneagrammi on tapa hahmottaa ihmisen tyypillistä käyttäytymistä. Se perustuu jo lapsuudessa omaksuttuihin käyttäytymismuotoihin, joiden avulla lapsi on saanut turvallisuutta ja selviytymiskokemuksia. Tätä selviytymisstrategiaa hän helposti soveltaa myös aikuisiässä. Fransiskaanipappi Richard Rohr osiutti, että jo erämaaisät tunsivat ennagrammin sen alkumodossaan (mm. Evagrios Pontoslainen 300-luvulla). Enneagrammi ennustaa siis käyttäytymistyyliä. Näitä tyylejä ajatellaan yleensä olevan yhdeksän: