Back to Thought Deposit →
- CHALLENGE ← - Esihistorialliset eläimet
Dinoglyyfit - Dinoglyphs
HAASTE - CHALLENGE ←
- Esihistorialliset eläimet historiankirjoissa- Prehistoric Creatures Documented by Ancient Man
FIELDMARSHAL - RATIONALS
MBTI - Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
ENTJ (Extraversion, iNtuition, Thinking, Judgment) is an abbreviation used in the publications of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) to refer to one of sixteen personality types. The MBTI assessment was developed from the work of prominent psychiatrist Carl G. Jung in his book Psychological Types, which proposed a psychological typology based on his theories of cognitive functions.
From Jung's work, others developed psychological typologies. Jungian personality assessments include the MBTI assessment, developed by Isabel Briggs Myers and Katharine Cook Briggs, and the Keirsey Temperament Sorter, developed by David Keirsey. Keirsey referred to ENTJs as Fieldmarshals, one of the four types belonging to the temperament he called the Rationals.
ENTJs are among the rarest of types, accounting for about 2–5% of those who are formally tested. They tend to be self-driven, motivating, energetic, assertive, and competitive. They are often sought out as leaders due to an innate ability to direct or influence groups of people. Unusually influential and organized, they may sometimes judge others by their own tough standards, failing to take personal needs into account.
The MBTI preferences indicate the differences in people based on the following:
By using their preference in each of these areas, people develop what Jung and Myers called psychological type. This underlying personality pattern results from the dynamic interaction of their four preferences, in conjunction with environmental influences and their own individual tendencies. People are likely to develop behaviors, skills, and attitudes based on their particular type. Each personality type has its own potential strengths as well as areas that offer opportunities for growth.
The MBTI tool consists of multiple choice questions that sort respondents on the basis of the four "dichotomies" (pairs of psychological opposites). Sixteen different outcomes are possible, each identified by its own four-letter code, referred to by initial letters. (N is used for iNtuition, to differentiate it from Introversion). The MBTI is approximately 75% accurate according to its own manual.
E – Extraversion preferred to Introversion: ENTJs often feel motivated by their interaction with people. They tend to enjoy a wide circle of acquaintances, and they gain energy in social situations (whereas introverts expend energy).
N – iNtuition preferred to Sensing: ENTJs tend to be more abstract than concrete. They focus their attention on the big picture rather than the details, and on future possibilities rather than immediate realities. They tend to focus on the final product rather than the current task.
T – Thinking preferred to Feeling: ENTJs tend to value objective criteria above personal preference. When making decisions, they generally give more weight to logic than to social considerations. For this reason, they are sometimes considered self-sacrificing; however, types who prefer Feeling may instead perceive them as "cold and heartless."
J – Judgment preferred to Perception: ENTJs tend to plan their activities and make decisions early. They derive a sense of control through predictability, which to perceptive types may seem limiting. ENTJs often try to predict outcomes and plan accordingly.
ENTJs have a natural tendency to marshal and direct. This may be expressed with the charm and finesse of a world leader or with the insensitivity of a cult leader. The ENTJ requires little encouragement to make a plan. One ENTJ put it this way... "I make these little plans that really don't have any importance to anyone else, and then feel compelled to carry them out." While "compelled" may not describe ENTJs as a group, nevertheless the bent to plan creatively and to make those plans reality is a common theme for NJ types.
ENTJs focus on the most efficient and organized means of performing a task. This quality, along with their goal orientation, often makes ENTJs superior leaders, both realistic and visionary in implementing a long-term plan. ENTJs tend to be fiercely independent in their decision making, having a strong will that insulates them against external influence. Generally highly competent, ENTJs analyze and structure the world around them in a logical and rational way. Due to this straightforward way of thinking, ENTJs tend to have the greatest difficulty of all the types in applying subjective considerations and emotional values into the decision-making process.
ENTJs often excel in business and other areas that require systems analysis, original thinking, and an economically savvy mind. They are dynamic and pragmatic problem solvers. They tend to have a high degree of confidence in their own abilities, making them assertive and outspoken. In their dealings with others, they are generally outgoing, charismatic, fair-minded, and unaffected by conflict or criticism. However, these qualities can make ENTJs appear arrogant, insensitive, and confrontational. They can overwhelm others with their energy, intelligence, and desire to order the world according to their own vision. As a result, they may seem intimidating, hasty, and controlling.
ENTJs tend to cultivate their personal power. They often end up taking charge of a situation that seems (to their mind, at least) to be out of control, or that can otherwise be improved upon and strengthened. They strive to learn new things, which helps them become resourceful problem-solvers. However, since ENTJs rely on provable facts, they may find subjective issues pointless. ENTJs appear to take a tough approach to emotional or personal issues, and so can be viewed as aloof and cold-hearted. In situations requiring feeling and value judgments, ENTJs are well served to seek the advice of a trusted Feeling type.
According to David Keirsey, based on observations of behavior, notable ENTJs might include Napoleon Bonaparte, Margaret Thatcher, Golda Meir,and Bill Gates. For a more complete list, see Notable Fieldmarshals.
According to Baron and Wagele, the most common Enneatypes for ENTJs are Achievers, Skeptics and Asserters.
Drawing upon Jungian theory, Isabel Myers proposed that for each personality type, the cognitive functions—sensing, intuition, thinking, and feeling—form a hierarchy. This hierarchy represents the person's "default" pattern of behavior.
The Dominant function is the personality type's preferred role, the one they feel most comfortable with. The secondary Auxiliary function serves to support and expand on the Dominant function. If the Dominant is an information gathering function (sensing or intuition), the Auxiliary is a decision making function (thinking or feeling), and vice versa. The Tertiary function is less developed than the Dominant and Auxiliary, but it matures over time, rounding out the person's abilities. The Inferior function is the personality type's Achilles' heel. This is the function they are least comfortable with. Like the Tertiary, the Inferior function strengthens with maturity.
Jung and Myers considered the attitude of the Auxiliary, Tertiary, and Inferior functions to be the opposite of the Dominant. In this interpretation, if the Dominant function is extraverted, then the other three are introverted, and vice versa. However, many modern practitioners hold that the attitude of the Tertiary function is the same as the Dominant. (Neither view is backed by sufficient empirical evidence to be considered scientifically valid.)
Using the more modern interpretation, the cognitive functions of the ENTJ are as follows:
Te organizes and schedules ideas and the environment to ensure the efficient, productive pursuit of objectives. Te seeks logical explanations for actions, events, and conclusions, looking for faulty reasoning and lapses in sequence. 
Te is the most developed function for ENTJs. Te involves ordering, structuring, specifying, and applying logic to situations. ENTJs tend to be endowed with strong organizational and coordination skills. Te is also focused on performing a task in the most efficient and productive manner, which generally gives ENTJs the ability to direct and marshal their environment according to work-specific needs. Further, Te contributes to the ENTJs' ability to accumulate relevant data while analyzing that data for factual accuracies and impersonal applications.
Attracted to symbolic actions or devices, Ni synthesizes seeming paradoxes to create the previously unimagined. These realizations come with a certainty that demands action to fulfill a new vision of the future, solutions that may include complex systems or universal truths. 
Ni allows ENTJs to process information and events through impressions, possibilities, and meanings, thereby helping provide ENTJs with a sense of the future. Ni contributes to the ability to grasp patterns and plans. Complex, generalized information is processed through Ni to add clarity and check for imperfections. Ni supports Te in ENTJs' pursuit of goals; ENTJs use Ni to improve a situation to make it more useful to themselves.
Se focuses on the experiences and sensations of the immediate, physical world. With an acute awareness of the present surroundings, it brings relevant facts and details to the forefront and may lead to spontaneous action. 
In ENTJs, Se is a basic function, less developed than Te or Ni. Se helps ENTJs effectively act upon their immediate surroundings. ENTJs scan their physical environment to observe where improvements can be made, and Se is integral to the application of Te and Ni to meet those standards. Se gathers detailed data from the immediate experience to expand the ENTJs' knowledge base and heighten the ENTJs' sense of reality upon taking action.
Fi filters information based on interpretations of worth, forming judgments according to criteria that are often intangible. Fi constantly balances an internal set of values such as harmony and authenticity. Attuned to subtle distinctions, Fi innately senses what is true and what is false in a situation. 
Fi is the ENTJs' weakest function, but it does mature over time. ENTJs have difficulty applying subjective and emotional thoughts to their decision-making, since they believe Feeling obstructs decisiveness and impartiality. While this is applicable to objective criteria, ENTJs must learn to recognize the great importance of Feeling in relationships and personal contact, since it creates the close bonds vital to human beings. At worst, a failure to engage the Feeling function can make ENTJs appear overbearing, insensitive, and abrasive. Further, it can result in an underdeveloped system of morality and values, which can disengage ENTJs from the personal world of self-fulfillment.
Later personality researchers (notably Linda V. Berens) added four additional functions to the descending hierarchy, the so-called "shadow" functions to which the individual is not naturally inclined but which can be developed, or emerge when the person is under stress. The shadow processes "operate more on the boundaries of our awareness…We usually experience these processes in a negative way, yet when we are open to them, they can be quite positive." For the ENTJ these shadow functions are (in order):
Introverted thinking (Ti): Ti seeks precision, such as the exact word to express an idea. It notices the minute distinctions that define the essence of things, then analyzes and classifies them. Ti examines all sides of an issue, looking to solve problems while minimizing effort and risk. It uses models to root out logical inconsistency. For the ENTJ, Ti supports Te by expanding the use of the Thinking function. But using Ti requires more effort, and Ti's application is narrower.
Extraverted intuition (Ne): Ne finds and interprets hidden meanings, using “what if” questions to explore alternatives and allowing multiple possibilities to coexist. This imaginative play weaves together insights and experiences from various sources to form a new whole, which can then become a catalyst to action. For the ENTJ, Ne can connect and generate ideas, adding breadth to the intuitive process of Ni. In its negative form Ne has a critical element that may lead to actions that demoralize or immobilize others.
Introverted sensing (Si): Si collects data in the present moment and compares it with past experiences. This process sometimes evokes the feelings associated with memory as if the subject were reliving it. Seeking to protect what is familiar, Si draws upon history to form goals and expectations about what will happen in the future. For the ENTJ, Si can provide practical guidance and comic insight into bothersome or tiring situations that stress an otherwise stable ENTJ. However, neglect of Si can lead to careless and hasty behavior in detail-oriented tasks.
Extraverted feeling (Fe): Fe seeks social connections and creates harmonious interactions through polite, considerate, and appropriate behavior. Fe responds to the explicit (and implicit) wants of others, and may even create an internal conflict between the subject’s own needs and the desire to meet the needs of others. For the ENTJ, the Fe function lacks proper acknowledgment much like the inferior Fi counterpart. Over the long term, Fe will balance the awareness that ENTJs have of themselves and others by dampening the excessive effects of the dominant Te function.
^ "CAPT". http://www.capt.org/mbti-assessment/estimated-frequencies.htm. Retrieved 2008-10-13.
^ a b Myers, Isabel Briggs; Mary H. McCaulley (1985) (in English). Manual: A Guide to the Development and Use of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (2nd edition ed.). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologist Press. pp. 52. ISBN 0-89106-027-8.
^ a b "Changing Minds: Thinking vs. Feeling". http://changingminds.org/explanations/preferences/thinking_feeling.htm. Retrieved 2009-01-10.
^ "The Personality Junkie: Personality Type Theory". http://personalityjunkie.com/personality-type-theory/. Retrieved 2009-11-22.
^ "Cognitive Processes: Extraverted thinking". http://www.cognitiveprocesses.com/extravertedthinking.html. Retrieved 2009-05-12.
^ "Cognitive Processes: Introverted intuition". http://www.cognitiveprocesses.com/introvertedintuiting.html. Retrieved 2009-05-12.
^ "Cognitive Processes: Extraverted Sensing". http://www.cognitiveprocesses.com/extravertedsensing.html. Retrieved 2009-05-12.
^ "Cognitive Processes: Introverted feeling". http://www.cognitiveprocesses.com/introvertedfeeling.html. Retrieved 2009-05-12.
^ "Cognitive Processes: Introverted thinking". http://www.cognitiveprocesses.com/introvertedthinking.html. Retrieved 2009-05-12.
^ "Cognitive Processes: Extraverted intuition". http://www.cognitiveprocesses.com/extravertedintuiting.html. Retrieved 2009-05-12.
^ "Cognitive Processes: Introverted sensing". http://www.cognitiveprocesses.com/introvertedsensing.html. Retrieved 2009-05-12.
^ "Cognitive Processes: Extraverted Feeling". http://www.cognitiveprocesses.com/extravertedfeeling.html. Retrieved 2009-05-12.
Of the four aspects of strategic analysis and definition it
is marshaling or situational organizing role that reaches the highest
development in the Fieldmarshal. As this
kind of role is practiced some contingency organizing is necessary, so that the
second suit of the Fieldmarshal's intellect is devising contingency plans.
Structural and functional engineering, though practiced in some degree in the
course of organizational operations, tend to be not nearly as well developed and
are soon outstripped by the rapidly growing skills in organizing. But it must be
said that any kind of strategic exercise tends to bring added strength to
engineering as well as organizing skills. Hardly more than two percent of the total population,
Fieldmarshals are bound to lead others, and from an early age they can be
observed taking command of groups. In some cases, they simply find themselves in
charge of groups, and are mystified as to how this happened. But the reason is
that they have a strong natural urge to give structure and direction wherever
they are - to harness people in the field and to direct them to achieve distant
goals. They resemble Supervisors in their tendency to establish plans for a
task, enterprise, or organization, but Fieldmarshals search more for policy and
goals than for regulations and procedures. They cannot not build organizations, and cannot
not push to implement their goals. When in charge of an organization,
whether in the military, business, education, or government, Fieldmarshals more
than any other type desire (and generally have the ability) to visualize where
the organization is going, and they seem able to communicate that vision to
others. Their organizational and coordinating skills tends to be highly
developed, which means that they are likely to be good at systematizing,
ordering priorities, generalizing, summarizing, at marshaling evidence, and at
demonstrating their ideas. Their ability to organize, however, may be more
highly developed than their ability to analyze, and the Fieldmarshal leader may
need to turn to an Inventor or Architect to provide this kind of input. Fieldmarshals will usually rise to positions of
responsibility and enjoy being executives. They are tireless in their devotion
to their jobs and can easily block out other areas of life for the sake of their
work. Superb administrators in any field - medicine, law, business, education,
government, the military - Fieldmarshals organize their units into
smooth-functioning systems, planning in advance, keeping both short-term and
long-range objectives well in mind. For the Fieldmarshal, there must always be a
goal-directed reason for doing anything, and people's feelings usually are not
sufficient reason. They prefer decisions to be based on impersonal data, want to
work from well thought-out plans, like to use engineered operations - and they
expect others to follow suit. They are ever intent on reducing bureaucratic red
tape, task redundancy, and aimless confusion in the workplace, and they are
willing to dismiss employees who cannot get with the program and increase their
efficiency. Although Fieldmarshals are tolerant of established procedures, they
can and will abandon any procedure when it can be shown to be ineffective in
accomplishing its goal. Fieldmarshals root out and reject ineffectiveness and
inefficiency, and are impatient with repetition of error.
Hillary Clinton, Napoleon, Margret Thatcher, Carl Sagan, Bill Gates, Golda
Meir, Edward Teller, George Benard Shaw, and General George C. Marshall are
examples of Rational Fieldmarshals. A full description of the Fieldmarshal and Rational is
in People Patterns or
Please Understand Me II More About Your Rational Fieldmarshal Personality: Receive Monthly Articles on Being A Rational
Fieldmarshal: The Keirsey
PersonalityZone Newsletter All Rationals (NTs)
share the following core characteristics: Rationals are the
problem solving temperament, particularly if the problem has to do with the many
complex systems that make up the world around us. Rationals might tackle
problems in organic systems such as plants and animals, or in mechanical systems
such as railroads and computers, or in social systems such as families and
companies and governments. But whatever systems fire their curiosity, Rationals
will analyze them to understand how they work, so they can figure out how to
make them work better. In working with problems, Rationals try to find
solutions that have application in the real world, but they are even more
interested in the abstract concepts involved, the fundamental principles or
natural laws that underlie the particular case. And they are completely
pragmatic about their ways and means of achieving their ends. Rationals don't
care about being politically correct. They are interested in the most efficient
solutions possible, and will listen to anyone who has something useful to teach
them, while disregarding any authority or customary procedure that wastes time
and resources. Rationals have an insatiable hunger to accomplish their
goals and will work tirelessly on any project they have set their mind to. They
are rigorously logical and fiercely independent in their thinking -- are indeed
skeptical of all ideas, even their own -- and they believe they can overcome any
obstacle with their will power. Often they are seen as cold and distant, but
this is really the absorbed concentration they give to whatever problem they're
working on. Whether designing a skyscraper or an experiment, developing a theory
or a prototype technology, building an aircraft, a corporation, or a strategic
alliance, Rationals value intelligence, in themselves and others, and they pride
themselves on the ingenuity they bring to their problem solving. Rationals are very scarce, comprising as little as 5 to
10 percent of the population. But because of their drive to unlock the secrets
of nature, and to develop new technologies, they have done much to shape our
Albert Einstein, Marie Curie, Bill Gates, Margaret Thatcher, Walt Disney,
Camille Paglia, Ayn Rand,
Richard Feynman, and
General Ulysses S. Grant and President Dwight D. Eisenhower are examples of
Rationals. A full description of the Rational is in
People Patterns or
Please Understand Me II
Albert Einstein is the iconic example of a Rational. A List of
Best Job Fit for
Dealing With Stress at
Work: Rational Strategies
Women and Romance -
Men and Romance - The
Love the One You're
With - Tips for Rationals With Non-Rational Partners
Maximizing Your Study Environment
Capitalizing on Your Strategic Intelligence Style
Of the four aspects of strategic analysis and definition it is marshaling or situational organizing role that reaches the highest development in the Fieldmarshal. As this kind of role is practiced some contingency organizing is necessary, so that the second suit of the Fieldmarshal's intellect is devising contingency plans. Structural and functional engineering, though practiced in some degree in the course of organizational operations, tend to be not nearly as well developed and are soon outstripped by the rapidly growing skills in organizing. But it must be said that any kind of strategic exercise tends to bring added strength to engineering as well as organizing skills.
Hardly more than two percent of the total population, Fieldmarshals are bound to lead others, and from an early age they can be observed taking command of groups. In some cases, they simply find themselves in charge of groups, and are mystified as to how this happened. But the reason is that they have a strong natural urge to give structure and direction wherever they are - to harness people in the field and to direct them to achieve distant goals. They resemble Supervisors in their tendency to establish plans for a task, enterprise, or organization, but Fieldmarshals search more for policy and goals than for regulations and procedures.
They cannot not build organizations, and cannot not push to implement their goals. When in charge of an organization, whether in the military, business, education, or government, Fieldmarshals more than any other type desire (and generally have the ability) to visualize where the organization is going, and they seem able to communicate that vision to others. Their organizational and coordinating skills tends to be highly developed, which means that they are likely to be good at systematizing, ordering priorities, generalizing, summarizing, at marshaling evidence, and at demonstrating their ideas. Their ability to organize, however, may be more highly developed than their ability to analyze, and the Fieldmarshal leader may need to turn to an Inventor or Architect to provide this kind of input.
Fieldmarshals will usually rise to positions of responsibility and enjoy being executives. They are tireless in their devotion to their jobs and can easily block out other areas of life for the sake of their work. Superb administrators in any field - medicine, law, business, education, government, the military - Fieldmarshals organize their units into smooth-functioning systems, planning in advance, keeping both short-term and long-range objectives well in mind. For the Fieldmarshal, there must always be a goal-directed reason for doing anything, and people's feelings usually are not sufficient reason. They prefer decisions to be based on impersonal data, want to work from well thought-out plans, like to use engineered operations - and they expect others to follow suit. They are ever intent on reducing bureaucratic red tape, task redundancy, and aimless confusion in the workplace, and they are willing to dismiss employees who cannot get with the program and increase their efficiency. Although Fieldmarshals are tolerant of established procedures, they can and will abandon any procedure when it can be shown to be ineffective in accomplishing its goal. Fieldmarshals root out and reject ineffectiveness and inefficiency, and are impatient with repetition of error.
Hillary Clinton, Napoleon, Margret Thatcher, Carl Sagan, Bill Gates, Golda Meir, Edward Teller, George Benard Shaw, and General George C. Marshall are examples of Rational Fieldmarshals.
A full description of the Fieldmarshal and Rational is in People Patterns or Please Understand Me II
More About Your Rational Fieldmarshal Personality:
Receive Monthly Articles on Being A Rational Fieldmarshal: The Keirsey PersonalityZone Newsletter
All Rationals (NTs) share the following core characteristics:
Rationals are the problem solving temperament, particularly if the problem has to do with the many complex systems that make up the world around us. Rationals might tackle problems in organic systems such as plants and animals, or in mechanical systems such as railroads and computers, or in social systems such as families and companies and governments. But whatever systems fire their curiosity, Rationals will analyze them to understand how they work, so they can figure out how to make them work better.
In working with problems, Rationals try to find solutions that have application in the real world, but they are even more interested in the abstract concepts involved, the fundamental principles or natural laws that underlie the particular case. And they are completely pragmatic about their ways and means of achieving their ends. Rationals don't care about being politically correct. They are interested in the most efficient solutions possible, and will listen to anyone who has something useful to teach them, while disregarding any authority or customary procedure that wastes time and resources.
Rationals have an insatiable hunger to accomplish their goals and will work tirelessly on any project they have set their mind to. They are rigorously logical and fiercely independent in their thinking -- are indeed skeptical of all ideas, even their own -- and they believe they can overcome any obstacle with their will power. Often they are seen as cold and distant, but this is really the absorbed concentration they give to whatever problem they're working on. Whether designing a skyscraper or an experiment, developing a theory or a prototype technology, building an aircraft, a corporation, or a strategic alliance, Rationals value intelligence, in themselves and others, and they pride themselves on the ingenuity they bring to their problem solving.
Rationals are very scarce, comprising as little as 5 to 10 percent of the population. But because of their drive to unlock the secrets of nature, and to develop new technologies, they have done much to shape our world.
Albert Einstein, Marie Curie, Bill Gates, Margaret Thatcher, Walt Disney, Camille Paglia, Ayn Rand, Thomas Jefferson, Richard Feynman, and General Ulysses S. Grant and President Dwight D. Eisenhower are examples of Rationals.
A full description of the Rational is in People Patterns or Please Understand Me II
Albert Einstein is the iconic example of a Rational.
A List of Famous Rationals
Myers–Briggs-tyyppi-indikaattori (lyh. MBTI, engl. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator) on psykologinen indikaattori, joka kuvaa ihmisen persoonallisuutta neljän ulottuvuuden avulla. Indikaattorin kehitti Katherine Briggs tyttärensä Isabel Myersin kanssa toisen maailmansodan jälkeen saadakseen ihmiset ymmärtämään erilaisuutta ja tulemaan paremmin toimeen keskenään.
MBTI perustuu Carl Jungin teorioihin, joskin Briggs ja Myers lisäsivät ulottuvuuden järjestelmällinen–spontaani, koska Jungin rationaalisuus-käsite oli varsin vaikeaselkoinen. Indikaattorin kysymysten perusteella selvitetään, kumpaa preferenssiä (I–E, S–N, T–F ja J–P) koehenkilö luontevammin jokaisessa neljässä ulottuvuudessa käyttää. Persoonallisuudella tarkoitetaan luonteenpiirteitä, ominaisuuksia ja suhteellisen pysyviä käyttäytymismuotoja, mutta persoonallisuuden dynamiikka otetaan huomioon. MBTI:n mukaan persoonalisuus ei siis ole "pysäytyskuva", kuten piirretesteissä.
Kirjainlyhenteet tulevat seuraavista englanninkielisistä sanoista:
Sensing (S) / iNtuition (N)
Thinking (T) / Feeling (F)
Judgment (J) / Perception (P)
ISTJ eli tunnollinen
ISTP eli sentaja
ESTP eli toimija
ESTJ eli vartija
ISFJ eli suojelija
ISFP eli taiteilija
ESFP eli esiintyjä
ESFJ eli hoitaja
INFJ eli turvaaja
INFP eli idealisti
ENFP eli innoittaja
ENFJ eli antelias
INTJ eli tutkija
INTP eli ajattelija
ENTP eli edelläkävijä
ISTJ on analyyttinen tosiasioiden ja yksityiskohtien johtaja.
ISTP on käytännöllinen analysoija.
ESTP on realistinen sopeutuja aineellisten asioiden maailmassa.
ESTJ on tosiasioihin nojautuva käytännöllinen organisoija.
ISFJ on sympaattinen tosiasioiden ja yksityiskohtien johtana.
ISFP on tarkkaavainen ja uskollinen auttaja.
ESFP on realistinen sopeutuja ihmissuhteissa.
ESFJ on käytännöllinen yhteensovittaja.
INFJ on ihmiskeskeinen ideoiden keksijä.
INFP on mielikuvituksellinen ja itsenäinen auttaja
ENFP on lämpimästi innokas muutoksen suunnittelija.
ENFJ on mielikuvituksellinen yhteensovittaja.
INTJ on looginen, kriittinen ja päättäväinen ideoiden keksijä.
INTP on tiedonhaluinen analysoija.
ENTP on kekseliäs ja analyyttinen muutoksen suunnittelija.
I–E-ulottuvuus kuvaa asennetta ympäristöön. S–N-ulottuvuus kuvaa tiedonhankintatottumuksia ja T–F-ulottuvuus päätöksenteon perusteita. J–P-ulottuvuus kuvaa elämäntyyliä.
Ekstravertti (E) tuntee todennäköisesti olonsa kotoisammaksi ihmisten ja asioiden kanssa ulkomaailmassa kuin ideoiden sisäisessä maailmassa, "ulospäinsuuntautunut".
Introvertti (I) tuntee todennäköisesti olonsa kotoisammaksi sisäisessä ideamaailmassa kuin ihmisten ja asioiden ulkomaailmassa, "sisäänpäinsuuntautunut".
Tosiasiallinen (S) työskentelee todennäköisesti mieluummin tunnettujen tosiasioiden parissa kuin etsii mahdollisuuksia ja keskinäisiä suhteita.
Intuitiivinen (N) etsii mieluummin mahdollisuuksia ja yhteyksiä kuin työstää tunnettuja faktoja, tulevaisuuteen suuntautunut.
Ajatteleva (T) tekee päätökset todennäköisemmin persoonattoman analyysin kuin henkilökohtaisten arvojen perusteella.
Tunteva (F) tekee päätökset todennäköisemmin henkilökohtaisten arvojen kuin persoonattoman logiikan avulla.
Järjestelmällinen (J) pitää todennäköisesti enemmän suunnitellusta, organisoidusta, selvästä ja täsmällisestä elämäntavasta kuin joustavasta ja spontaanista.
Spontaani (P) pitää todennäköisesti enemmän joustavasta ja spontaanista elämäntavasta kuin suunnitellusta ja järjestelmällisestä.
Huomattakoon, että piirretestien "ekstrovertti" kuvaa enemmänkin eräänlaista sosiaalisuutta, kun taas MBTI:n ekstravertti kuvaa suuntautumista ulkoiseen asioiden ja ihmisten maailmaan ottamatta varsinaisesti kantaa sosiaalisuuteen.
Neljä ulottuvuutta ja kahdeksan preferenssiä muodostavat 16 persoonallisuustyyppiä, joihin liittyy paljon preferenssien mukaisia yhteisiä piirteitä ja käyttäytymistapoja, vaikka tyypin sisällä olevat henkilöt ovat kukin omia erilaisia yksilöitään. MBTI on ainoa dynaaminen persoonallisuusindikaattori, joka kuvaa henkilön persoonallisuuden preferenssijärjestyksen ja se mukaisen käyttäytymisen niin tiedostetussa "normaalitilassa" kuin syystä tai toisesta ajauduttaessa vähemmän tiedostettujen "varjopersoonien" tasolle. MBTI:n ulottuvuuksia voidaan osittain kuvata myös "viiden suuren persoonallisuudenpiirteen" (engl. big five) ulottuvuuksilla.
Teoria viidestä suuresta persoonallisuuden piirteestä on McCraen & Costan käsityksen mukaan saanut persoonallisuuden tutkimuksessa enemmän tukea kuin Jungin luokitukseen perustuva teoria (mm. persoonallisuuden piirteitä pidetään jatkuvina, ei dikotomisina ominaisuuksina; mukana on myös viides neuroottisuus-ulottuvuus). MBTI:n kehittämistä tuntevat voivat kuitenkin havaita MBTI:n toimivuuden ja käyttökelpoisuuden verrattuna muihin persoonallisuuden tarkastelutapoihin. Vaikka esimerkiksi ulottuuvuuksia ilmaistaan dikotomialla kuvaamaan ihmisen luontaista taipumusta "kallistua" ulottuuvuuden jommankumman ääripään suuntaan, on MBTI ainut dynaaminen malli, joka selittää ihmisen persoonallisuuden kokonaisuuden, myös ulottuvuuksien "heikomman pään" käytön. Patologiset ja piirretestit eivät ilmennä persoonallisuuden dynamiikkaa. MBTI:n erinomainen toimivuus on osoitettu runsaassa suomalaisessa tutkimuksessa.
Satunnaisesti valitussa amerikkalaista väestöä kuvaavassa otoksessa tyypit jakautuivat seuraavasti (jakauma eroaa melkoisesti suomalaisesta työelämässä toimivasta väestöstä; huomautus V. Routamaa):
Routamaa, V. & Hautala, T. M.: Katse naamion taa: Itsetuntemuksesta voimaa. LEADEC Publications, 2009.
McCrae, R R; Costa, P T (1989) Reinterpreting the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator From the Perspective of the Five-Factor Model of Personality. Journal of Personality, 57(1):17–40.
Myers, I. & McCaulley, M.H. (1990). Manual: A Guide to the Development and Use of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. CA: Consulting Psychologists Press, Inc.
Myers, Isabel & Mary H. McCalley & Naomi L. Quenk & Allen L. Hammer (1998): MBTI Manual. 3rd ed. California: Consulting Psychologists Press, Inc.
↑ Esimerkiksi Routamaa & Hautala 2009.
↑ Esimerkiksi Myers & McCalley & Quenk & Hammer 1998.
↑ McCrae & Costa, 1989.
↑ Esimerkiksi Myers & McCaulley 1990; Myers & McCalley & Quenk & Hammer 1998.
Lyhyt temperamenttitesti jungilaisilla kysymyksillä (en)
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) assessment is a psychometric questionnaire designed to measure psychological preferences in how people perceive world and make decisions.:1 se preferences were extrapolated from typological ories originated by Carl Gustav Jung, as published in his 1921 book Psychological Types (English edition, 1923). original developers of personality inventory were Katharine Cook Briggs and her daughter, Isabel Briggs Myers. y began creating indicator during World War II, believing that a knowledge of personality preferences would help women who were entering industrial workforce for first time to identify sort of war-time jobs where y would be "most comfortable and effective.":xiii initial questionnaire grew into Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, which was first published in 1962. MBTI focuses on normal populations and emphasizes value of naturally occurring differences.
MBTI instrument is called " best-known and most trusted personality assessment tool available today" by its publisher, CPP (formerly Consulting Psychologists Press). CPP furr calls MBTI tool " world’s most widely used personality assessment", with as many as two million assessments administered annually. Some academic psychologists have criticized MBTI instrument, claiming that it "lacks convincing validity data". Proponents of test, however, cite reports of individual behavior and have also found that indicator meets or exceeds reliability of or psychological instruments. For most adults (75–90%), though not for children, MBTI is reported to give same result for 3–4 preferences when test is administered to same person more than once (although period between measurements is not stated). Some studies have found strong support for construct validity, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability, although variation was observed.
definitive published source of reference for Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is Manual produced by CPP, from which much of information in this article is drawn, along with training materials from CPP and ir European training partners, Oxford Psychologists Press. Also, a related model, with an original test, is published in David Keirsey's books Please Understand Me and Please Understand Me II.
registered trademark rights to terms Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and MBTI have been assigned from publisher of test, CPP, Inc., to Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Trust.
As MBTI Manual states, MBTI "is designed to implement a ory; refore ory must be understood to understand MBTI.":1
Fundamental to Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is ory of psychological type as originally developed by Carl Jung.:xiii Jung proposed existence of two dichotomous pairs of cognitive functions:
"rational" (judging) functions: thinking and feeling
"irrational" (perceiving) functions: sensing and intuition
Jung went on to suggest that se functions are expressed in eir an introverted or extraverted form.:17 From Jung's original concepts, Briggs and Myers developed ir own ory of psychological type, described below, on which MBTI is based.
Myers-Briggs typology model regards personality type as similar to left or right handedness: individuals are eir born with, or develop, certain preferred ways of thinking and acting. MBTI sorts some of se psychological differences into four opposite pairs, or dichotomies, with a resulting 16 possible psychological types. None of se types are "better" or "worse"; however, Briggs and Myers orized that individuals naturally prefer one overall combination of type differences.:9 In same way that writing with left hand is hard work for a right-hander, so people tend to find using ir opposite psychological preferences more difficult, even if y can become more proficient (and refore behaviorally flexible) with practice and development.
16 types are typically referred to by an abbreviation of four letters— initial letters of each of ir four type preferences (except in case of iNtuition, which uses abbreviation N to distinguish it from Introversion).
ESTJ - Extraversion, Sensing, Thinking, Judgment
INFP - Introversion, iNtuition, Feeling, Perception
And so on for all 16 possible type combinations.
four pairs of preferences or dichotomies are shown in table to right.
Note that terms used for each dichotomy have specific technical meanings relating to MBTI which differ from ir everyday usage. For example, people who prefer judgment over perception are not necessarily more judgmental or less perceptive.
Nor does MBTI instrument measure aptitude; it simply indicates for one preference over anor.:3 Someone reporting a high score for extraversion over introversion cannot be correctly described as more extraverted: y simply have a clear preference.
Point scores on each of dichotomies can vary considerably from person to person, even among those with same type. However, Isabel Myers considered direction of preference (for example, E vs. I) to be more important than degree of preference (for example, very clear vs. slight).
preferences for extraversion (thus spelled in Myers-Briggs jargon) and introversion are sometimes referred to as attitudes. Briggs and Myers recognized that each of cognitive functions can operate in external world of behavior, action, people, and things (extraverted attitude) or internal world of ideas and reflection (introverted attitude). Myers-Briggs Type Indicator sorts for an overall preference for one or or of se.
terms extravert and introvert are used in a special sense when discussing Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. People who prefer extraversion draw energy from action: y tend to act, n reflect, n act furr. If y are inactive, ir motivation tends to decline. To rebuild ir energy, extraverts need breaks from time spent in reflection. Conversely, those who prefer introversion expend energy through action: y prefer to reflect, n act, n reflect again. To rebuild ir energy, introverts need quiet time alone, away from activity.
extravert's flow is directed outward toward people and objects, and introvert's is directed inward toward concepts and ideas. Contrasting characteristics between extraverts and introverts include following:
Extraverts are action oriented, while introverts are thought oriented.
Extraverts and seek breadth of knowledge and influence, while introverts seek depth of knowledge and influence.
Extraverts often prefer more frequent interaction, while introverts prefer more substantial interaction.
Jung identified two pairs of psychological functions:
two perceiving functions, sensing and intuition
two judging functions, thinking and feeling
According to Myers-Briggs typology model, each person uses one of se four functions more dominantly and proficiently than or three; however, all four functions are used at different times depending on circumstances.
Sensing and intuition are information-garing (perceiving) functions. y describe how new information is understood and interpreted. Individuals who prefer sensing are more likely to trust information that is in present, tangible and concrete: that is, information that can be understood by five senses. y tend to distrust hunches, which seem to come "out of nowhere.":2 y prefer to look for details and facts. For m, meaning is in data. On or hand, those who prefer intuition tend to trust information that is more abstract or oretical, that can be associated with or information (eir remembered or discovered by seeking a wider context or pattern). y may be more interested in future possibilities. y tend to trust those flashes of insight that seem to bubble up from unconscious mind. meaning is in how data relates to pattern or ory.
Thinking and feeling are decision-making (judging) functions. thinking and feeling functions are both used to make rational decisions, based on data received from ir information-garing functions (sensing or intuition). Those who prefer thinking tend to decide things from a more detached standpoint, measuring decision by what seems reasonable, logical, causal, consistent and matching a given set of rules. Those who prefer feeling tend to come to decisions by associating or empathizing with situation, looking at it 'from inside' and weighing situation to achieve, on balance, greatest harmony, consensus and fit, considering needs of people involved.
As noted already, people who prefer thinking do not necessarily, in everyday sense, "think better" than ir feeling counterparts; opposite preference is considered an equally rational way of coming to decisions (and, in any case, MBTI assessment is a measure of preference, not ability). Similarly, those who prefer feeling do not necessarily have "better" emotional reactions than ir thinking counterparts.
Although people use all four cognitive functions, one function is generally used in a more conscious and confident way. This dominant function is supported by secondary (auxiliary) function, and to a lesser degree tertiary function. fourth and least conscious function is always opposite of dominant function. Myers called this inferior function shadow.:84
four functions operate in conjunction with attitudes (extraversion and introversion). Each function is used in eir an extraverted or introverted way. A person whose dominant function is extraverted intuition, for example, uses intuition very differently from someone whose dominant function is introverted intuition.
Myers and Briggs added anor dimension to Jung's typological model by identifying that people also have a preference for using eir judging function (thinking or feeling) or ir perceiving function (sensing or intuition) when relating to outside world (extraversion).
Myers and Briggs held that types with a preference for judgment show world ir preferred judging function (thinking or feeling). So TJ types tend to appear to world as logical, and FJ types as empatic. According to Myers,:75 judging types like to "have matters settled." Those types who prefer perception show world ir preferred perceiving function (sensing or intuition). So SP types tend to appear to world as concrete and NP types as abstract. According to Myers,:75 perceptive types prefer to "keep decisions open."
For extraverts, J or P indicates ir dominant function; for introverts, J or P indicates ir auxiliary function. Introverts tend to show ir dominant function outwardly only in matters "important to ir inner worlds.":13 For example:
Because ENTJ types are extraverts, J indicates that ir dominant function is ir preferred judging function (extraverted thinking). ENTJ types introvert ir auxiliary perceiving function (introverted intuition). tertiary function is sensing and inferior function is introverted feeling.
Because INTJ types are introverts, J indicates that ir auxiliary function is ir preferred judging function (extraverted thinking). INTJ types introvert ir dominant perceiving function (introverted intuition). tertiary function is feeling, and inferior function is extraverted sensing.
expression of a person's psychological type is more than sum of four individual preferences, because of way in which preferences interact through type dynamics and type development. Descriptions of each type can be found on Myers & Briggs Foundation website. In-depth descriptions of each type, including statistics, can be found in MBTI Manual.
Katharine Cook Briggs began her research into personality in 1917. Upon meeting her future son-in-law, she observed marked differences between his personality and that of or family members. Briggs embarked on a project of reading biographies, and she developed a typology based on patterns she found. She proposed four temperaments: Meditative (or Thoughtful), Spontaneous, Executive, and Social. n, after English translation of Psychological Types was published in 1923 (having first been published in German in 1921), she recognized that Jung's ory was similar to, yet went far beyond, her own.:22 Briggs's four types were later identified as corresponding to Is, EPs, ETJs and EFJs. Her first publications were two articles describing Jung's ory, in journal New Republic in 1926 (Meet Yourself Using Personality Paint Box) and 1928 (Up From Barbarism).
Briggs's daughter, Isabel Briggs Myers, added to her mor's typological research, which she would progressively take over entirely. Myers graduated first in her class from Swarthmore College in 1919:xx and wrote prize-winning mystery novel Murder Yet to Come in 1929 using typological ideas. However, neir Myers nor Briggs were formally educated in psychology, and thus y lacked scientific credentials in field of psychometric testing.:xiii So Myers apprenticed herself to Edward N. Hay, who was n personnel manager for a large Philadelphia bank and went on to start one of first successful personnel consulting firms in U.S. From Hay, Myers learned test construction, scoring, validation, and statistics.:xiii, xx In 1942, "Briggs-Myers Type Indicator" was created, and Briggs Myers Type Indicator Handbook was published in 1944. indicator changed its name to modern form (Myers-Briggs Type Indicator) in 1956.
Myers' work attracted attention of Henry Chauncey, head of Educational Testing Service, and under se auspices, first MBTI Manual was published in 1962. MBTI received furr support from Donald T. McKinnon, head of Institute of Personality Research at University of California; Harold Grant, professor at Michigan State and Auburn Universities; and Mary H. McCaulley of University of Florida. publication of MBTI was transferred to Consulting Psychologists Press in 1975, and Center for Applications of Psychological Type (CAPT) was founded as a research laboratory.:xxi After Myers' death in May 1980, Mary McCaulley updated MBTI Manual, and second edition was published in 1985. third edition appeared in 1998.
most notable addition of Myers and Briggs to Jung's original thought is ir concept that a given type's fourth letter (J or P) is determined by how that type interacts with external world, rar than by type's dominant function. difference becomes evident when assessing cognitive functions of introverts.:21-22
To Jung, a type with dominant introverted thinking, for example, would be considered rational (judging) because decision-making function is dominant. To Myers, however, that same type would be irrational (perceiving) because individual uses an information-garing function (eir extraverted intuition or extraverted sensing) when interacting with outer world.
of tertiary function
Jung orized that dominant function acts alone in its preferred world: exterior for extraverts, and interior for introverts. remaining three functions, he suggested, operate toger in opposite world. If dominant cognitive function is introverted, or functions are extraverted, and vice versa. MBTI Manual summarizes references in Jung's work to balance in psychological type as follows:
re are several references in Jung's writing to three remaining functions having an opposite attitudinal character. For example, in writing about introverts with thinking dominant...Jung commented that counterbalancing functions have an extraverted character.:29
However, many MBTI practitioners hold that tertiary function is oriented in same direction as dominant function. Using INTP type as an example, orientation would be as follows:
Dominant introverted thinking
Auxiliary extraverted intuition
Tertiary introverted sensing
Inferior extraverted feeling
From a oretical perspective, noted psychologist H.J. Eysenck calls MBTI a moderately successful quantification of Jung's original principles as outlined in Psychological Types. However, both models remain ory, with no controlled scientific studies supporting eir Jung's original concept of type or Myers-Briggs variation.
indicator is frequently used in areas of pedagogy, career counseling, team building, group dynamics, professional development, marketing, leadership training, executive coaching, life coaching, personal development, marriage counseling, and workers' compensation claims.
current North American English version of MBTI Step I includes 93 forced-choice questions (re are 88 in European English version). Forced-choice means that individual has to choose only one of two possible answers to each question. choices are a mixture of word pairs and short statements. Choices are not literal opposites but chosen to reflect opposite preferences on same dichotomy. Participants may skip questions if y feel y are unable to choose.
Using psychometric techniques, such as item response ory, MBTI will n be scored and will attempt to identify preference, and clarity of preference, in each dichotomy. After taking MBTI, participants are usually asked to complete a Best Fit exercise (see above) and n given a readout of ir Reported Type, which will usually include a bar graph and number to show how clear y were about each preference when y completed questionnaire.
During early development of MBTI thousands of items were used. Most were eventually discarded because y did not have high midpoint discrimination, meaning results of that one item did not, on average, move an individual score away from midpoint. Using only items with high midpoint discrimination allows MBTI to have fewer items on it but still provide as much statistical information as or instruments with many more items with lower midpoint discrimination. MBTI requires five points one way or anor to indicate a clear preference.
Isabel Myers had noted that people of any given type shared differences as well as similarities. At time of her death, she was developing a more in-depth method of measuring how people express and experience ir individual type pattern. This tool is called MBTI Step II.
A Step III is also being developed in a joint project involving following organizations: CPP, publisher of whole family of MBTI works; CAPT (Center for Applications of Psychological Type), which holds all of Myers' and McCaulley's original work; and MBTI Trust, headed by Katharine and Peter Myers. Step III will furr address use of perception and judgment by respondents.
In addition, Type Differentiation Indicator (TDI) (Saunders, 1989) is a scoring system for longer MBTI, Form J, which includes 20 subscales above, plus a Comfort-Discomfort factor (which purportedly corresponds to missing factor of Neuroticism). This factor includes seven additional scales to indicate a sense of overall comfort and confidence versus discomfort and anxiety: guarded-optimistic, defiant-compliant, carefree-worried, decisive-ambivalent, intrepid-inhibited, leader-follower, and proactive-distractible. Also included is a composite of se called "strain." Each of se comfort-discomfort subscales also loads onto one of four type dimensions, for example, proactive-distractible is also a judging-perceiving subscale. re are also scales for type-scale consistency and comfort-scale consistency. Reliability of 23 of 27 TDI subscales is greater than .50, "an acceptable result given brevity of subscales" (Saunders, 1989).
following precepts are generally used in ethical administration of Myers-Briggs Type Indicator:
MBTI sorts for type; it does not indicate strength of ability. questionnaire allows clarity of a preference to be ascertained (Bill clearly prefers introversion), but not strength of preference (Jane strongly prefers extraversion) or degree of aptitude (Harry is good at thinking). In this sense, it differs from trait-based tools such as 16PF. Type preferences are polar opposites: a precept of MBTI is that people fundamentally prefer one thing over or, not a bit of both.
Individuals are considered best judge of ir own type. While MBTI questionnaire provides a Reported Type, this is considered only an indication of ir probable overall Type. A Best Fit Process is usually used to allow respondents to develop ir understanding of four dichotomies, to form ir own hyposis as to ir overall Type, and to compare this against Reported Type. In more than 20% of cases, hyposis and Reported Type differ in one or more dichotomies. Using clarity of each preference, any potential for bias in report, and often, a comparison of two or more whole Types may n help respondents determine ir own Best Fit.
No preference or total type is considered "better" or "worse" than anor. y are all Gifts Differing, as emphasized by title of Isabel Briggs Myers' book on this subject.
It is considered unethical to compel anyone to take Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. It should always be taken voluntarily.
result of MBTI Reported and Best Fit type are confidential between individual and administrator and, ethically, not for disclosure without permission.
results of assessment should not be used to "label, evaluate, or limit respondent in any way." Since all types are valuable, and MBTI measures preferences rar than aptitude, MBTI is not considered a proper instrument for purposes of employment selection. Many professions contain highly competent individuals of different types with complementary preferences.
Individuals should always be given detailed feedback from a trained administrator and an opportunity to undertake a Best Fit exercise to check against ir Reported Type. This feedback can be given in person or, where this is not practical, by telephone or electronically.
interaction of two, three, or four preferences is known as type dynamics. Although type dynamics has garnered little or no empirical support to substantiate its viability as a scientific ory, Myers and Briggs asserted that for each of 16 four-preference types, one function is most dominant and is likely to be evident earliest in life. A secondary or auxiliary function typically becomes more evident (differentiated) during teenage years and provides balance to dominant. In normal development individuals tend to become more fluent with a third, tertiary function during mid life, while fourth, inferior function remains least consciously developed. inferior function is often considered to be more associated with unconscious, being most evident in situations such as high stress (sometimes referred to as being in grip of inferior function).
sequence of differentiation of dominant, auxiliary, and tertiary functions through life is termed type development. Note that this is an idealized sequence that may be disrupted by major life events.
dynamic sequence of functions and ir attitudes can be determined in following way:
overall lifestyle preference (J-P) determines wher judging (T-F) or perceiving (S-N) preference is most evident in outside world, i.e., which function has an extraverted attitude
attitude preference (E-I) determines wher extraverted function is dominant or auxiliary
For those with an overall preference for extraversion, function with extraverted attitude will be dominant function. For example, for an ESTJ type dominant function is judging function, thinking, and this is experienced with an extraverted attitude. This is notated as a dominant Te. For an ESTP, dominant function is perceiving function, sensing, notated as a dominant Se.
Auxiliary function for extraverts is secondary preference of judging or perceiving functions, and it is experienced with an introverted attitude: for example, auxiliary function for ESTJ is introverted sensing (Si) and auxiliary for ESTP is introverted thinking (Ti).
For those with an overall preference for introversion, function with extraverted attitude is auxiliary; dominant is or function in main four letter preference. So dominant function for ISTJ is introverted sensing (Si) with auxiliary (supporting) function being extraverted thinking (Te).
Tertiary function is opposite preference from Auxiliary. For example, if Auxiliary is thinking n Tertiary would be feeling. attitude of Tertiary is subject of some debate and refore is not normally indicated, i.e. if Auxiliary was Te n Tertiary would be F (not Fe or Fi)
Inferior function is opposite preference and attitude from Dominant, so for an ESTJ with dominant Te Inferior would be Fi.
Note that for extraverts, dominant function is one most evident in external world. For introverts, however, it is auxiliary function that is most evident externally, as ir dominant function relates to interior world.
Some examples of whole types may clarify this furr. Taking ESTJ example above:
Extraverted function is a judging function (T-F) because of overall J preference
Extraverted function is dominant because of overall E preference
Dominant function is refore extraverted thinking (Te)
Auxiliary function is preferred perceiving function: introverted sensing (Si)
Tertiary function is opposite of Auxiliary: intuition
Inferior function is opposite of Dominant: introverted feeling (Fi)
dynamics of ESTJ are found in primary combination of extraverted thinking as ir dominant function and introverted sensing as ir auxiliary function: dominant tendency of ESTJs to order ir environment, to set clear boundaries, to clarify roles and timetables, and to direct activities around m is supported by ir facility for using past experience in an ordered and systematic way to help organize mselves and ors. For instance, ESTJs may enjoy planning trips for groups of people to achieve some goal or to perform some culturally uplifting function. Because of ir ease in directing ors and ir facility in managing ir own time, y engage all resources at ir disposal to achieve ir goals. However, under prolonged stress or sudden trauma, ESTJs may overuse ir extraverted thinking function and fall into grip of ir inferior function, introverted feeling. Although ESTJ can seem insensitive to feelings of ors in ir normal activities, under tremendous stress, y can suddenly express feelings of being unappreciated or wounded by insensitivity.
Looking at diametrically opposite four-letter type, INFP:
Extraverted function is a perceiving function (S-N) because of P preference
Introverted function is dominant because of I preference
Dominant function is refore introverted feeling (Fi)
Auxiliary function is extraverted intuition (Ne)
Tertiary function is opposite of Auxiliary: sensing
Inferior function is opposite of Dominant: extraverted thinking (Te)
dynamics of INFP rest on fundamental correspondence of introverted feeling and extraverted intuition. dominant tendency of INFP is toward building a rich internal framework of values and toward championing human rights. y often devote mselves behind scenes to causes such as civil rights or saving environment. Since y tend to avoid limelight, postpone decisions, and maintain a reserved posture, y are rarely found in executive-director type positions of organizations that serve those causes. Normally, INFP dislikes being "in charge" of things. When not under stress, INFP radiates a pleasant and sympatic demeanor; but under extreme stress, y can suddenly become rigid and directive, exerting ir extraverted thinking erratically.
Every type—and its opposite—is expression of se interactions, which give each type its unique, recognizable signature.
Or personality type instruments based on Myers-Briggs ory include Golden Personality Type Profile and Majors Personality Type Indicator.
Some have orized that cognitive functions may correlate to Lateralization of brain function. Ors claim, however, that this proposed correlation has no scientific basis.
David W. Keirsey mapped four 'temperaments' to existing Myers-Briggs system groupings SP, SJ, NF and NT; this often results in confusion of two ories. However, Keirsey Temperament Sorter is not directly associated with official Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.
Inspector Protector Counselor Mastermind
Crafter Composer Healer Architect
Promoter Performer Champion Inventor
Supervisor Provider Teacher Fieldmarshal
McCrae and Costa present correlations between MBTI scales and Big Five personality construct, which is a conglomeration of characteristics found in nearly all personality and psychological tests. five personality characteristics are extraversion, openness, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and emotional stability (or neuroticism). following study is based on results from 267 men followed as part of a longitudinal study of aging. (Similar results were obtained with 201 women.)
se data suggest that four of MBTI scales are related to Big Five personality traits. se correlations show that E-I and S-N are strongly related to extraversion and openness respectively, while T-F and J-P are moderately related to agreeableness and conscientiousness respectively. emotional stability dimension of Big Five is largely absent from original MBTI (though TDI, discussed above, has addressed that dimension).
se findings led McCrae and Costa, formulators of Five Factor ory, to conclude, "correlational analyses showed that four MBTI indices did measure aspects of four of five major dimensions of normal personality. five-factor model provides an alternative basis for interpreting MBTI findings within a broader, more commonly shared conceptual framework." However, "re was no support for view that MBTI measures truly dichotomous preferences or qualitatively distinct types, instead, instrument measures four relatively independent dimensions."
Jung's ory of psychological type, as published in his 1921 book, was not tested through controlled scientific studies. Jung's methods primarily included clinical observation, introspection and anecdote—methods that are largely regarded as inconclusive by modern field of psychology.
Jung's type ory introduced a sequence of four cognitive functions (thinking, feeling, sensing, and intuition), each having one of two orientations (extraverted or introverted), for a total of eight functions. Myers-Briggs ory is based on se eight functions, although with some differences in expression (see Differences from Jung above). However, neir Myers-Briggs nor Jungian models offer any scientific, experimental proof to support existence, sequence, orientation, or manifestation of se functions.
statistical validity of MBTI as a psychometric instrument has been subject of criticism. It has been estimated that between a third and a half of published material on MBTI has been produced for conferences of Center for Application of Psychological Type (which provides training in MBTI) or as papers in Journal of Psychological Type (which is edited by Myers-Briggs advocates). It has been argued that this reflects a lack of critical scrutiny.
accuracy of MBTI depends on honest self-reporting by person tested.:52-53 Unlike some personality measures, such as Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory or Personality Assessment Inventory, MBTI does not use validity scales to assess exaggerated or socially desirable responses. As a result, individuals motivated to do so can fake ir responses, and one study found that MBTI judgment/perception dimension correlates with Eysenck Personality Questionnaire lie scale. If respondents "fear y have something to lose, y may answer as y assume y should.":53
With regard to factor analysis, one study of 1291 college-aged students found six different factors instead of four used in MBTI. In or studies, researchers found that JP and SN scales correlate with one anor.
Some researchers have interpreted reliability of test as being low. Studies have found that between 39% and 76% of those tested fall into different types upon retesting some weeks or years later.
One study reports that MBTI dichotomies exhibit good split-half reliability; however, dichotomy scores are distributed in a bell curve, and overall type allocations are less reliable. Also, test-retest reliability is sensitive to time between tests. Within each dichotomy scale, as measured on Form G, about 83% of categorizations remain same when individuals are retested within nine months, and around 75% when individuals are retested after nine months. About 50% of people tested within nine months remain same overall type, and 36% remain same type after more than nine months. For Form M ( most current form of MBTI instrument), se scores are higher (see MBTI Manual, p. 163, Table 8.6).
In one study, when people were asked to compare ir preferred type to that assigned by MBTI, only half of people picked same profile. Critics also argue that MBTI lacks falsifiability, which can cause confirmation bias in interpretation of results.
instrument's dichotomous scoring of dimensions has also been subject to criticism. For example, some researchers expected that scores would show a bimodal distribution with peaks near ends of scales, but found that scores on individual subscales were actually distributed in a centrally peaked manner similar to a normal distribution. A cut-off exists at center of subscale such that a score on one side is classified as one type, and a score on or side as opposite type. This fails to support concept of type: norm is for people to lie near middle of subscale. Neverless, " absence of bimodal score distributions does not necessarily prove that 'type'-based approach is incorrect."
relevance of MBTI for career planning has been questioned, with reservations about relevance of type to job performance or satisfaction, and concerns about potential misuse of instrument in labeling individuals. In her original research, Isabel Myers found that proportion of different personality types varied by choice of career or course of study.:40-51 However, some or researchers examining proportions of each type within varying professions report that proportion of MBTI types within each occupation is close to that within a random sample of population.
Also, efficiency of MBTI in an organizational setting has been subject to scrutiny. In 1991 three scholars at University of Western Ontario analyzed results of 97 independent studies that evaluated effectiveness of personality tests in predicting job success and job satisfaction ("Personnel Psychology," winter 1991). results of nationwide study challenged effectiveness of MBTI when related to individual performance and satisfaction in a corporate setting.
“ validity coefficient for personality tests in predicting job success was found to average 0.29 (on a scale of 0 to 1). corresponding average validity for MBTI, however, was a weak 0.12. In fact, each study that examined MBTI found its validity to be below acceptable levels of statistical significance.”
However, as noted above under Precepts and ethics, MBTI measures preference, not ability. use of MBTI as a predictor of job success is expressly discouraged in Manual.:78 It is not designed to be used for this purpose.
Skeptics criticize terminology of MBTI as being so "vague and general" as to allow any kind of behavior to fit any personality type. y claim that this results in Forer effect, where individuals give a high rating to a positive description that supposedly applies specifically to m. Ors argue that while MBTI type descriptions are brief, y are also distinctive and precise.:14-15 Some orists, such as David Keirsey, have expanded on MBTI descriptions, providing even greater detail. For instance, Keirsey's descriptions of his four temperaments, which he correlated with sixteen MBTI personality types, show how temperaments differ in terms of language use, intellectual orientation, educational and vocational interests, social orientation, self image, personal values, social roles, and characteristic hand gestures.:32-207
Kingdomality Personal Preference Profile
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Myers, Isabel Briggs with Peter B. Myers (1980, 1995). Gifts Differing: Understanding Personality Type. Mountain View, CA: Davies-Black Publishing. ISBN 0-89106-074-X.
^ Hunsley J, Lee CM, Wood JM (2004). "Controversial and questionable assessment techniques". Science and Pseudoscience in Clinical Psychology, Lilienfeld SO, Lohr JM, Lynn SJ (eds.). Guilford. ISBN 1-59385-070-0. , p. 65
^ a b c d McCrae, R R; Costa, P T (1989). "Reinterpreting Myers-Briggs Type Indicator From Perspective of Five-Factor Model of Personality". Journal of Personality 57 (1): 17–40. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6494.1989.tb00759.x. PMID 2709300.
^ a b c Matws, P (2004-05-21). " MBTI is a flawed measure of personality". Bmj.com Rapid Responses. http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/eletters/328/7450/1244. But see also Clack & Allen's response to Matws.
^ Clack, Gillian; Judy Allen. "Response to Paul Matws' criticism". http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/eletters/328/7450/1244. Retrieved 2008-05-14.
^ Lawrence, Gordon; Charles Martin. "CAPT (Center for Applications of Psychological Type)". http://www.capt.org/mbti-assessment/reliability-validity.htm. Retrieved 2008-04-20.
^ Thompson, Bruce; Gloria M. Borrello (1986). "Educational and Psychological Measurement". Construct Validity of Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. SAGE Publications. http://epm.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/46/3/745. Retrieved 2008-04-20.
^ Capraro, Robert M.; Mary Margaret Capraro (2002). "Educational and Psychological Measurement". Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Score Reliability Across: Studies a Meta-Analytic Reliability Generalization Study. SAGE Publications. http://epm.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/62/4/590. Retrieved 2008-04-20.
^ a b c d e f Myers, Isabel Briggs; McCaulley Mary H.; Quenk, Naomi L.; Hammer, Allen L. (1998). MBTI Manual (A guide to development and use of Myers Briggs type indicator). Consulting Psychologists Press; 3rd ed edition. ISBN 0-89106-130-4.
^ "Trademark Guidelines" (PDF). Consulting Psychologists Press. https://online.cpp-db.com/Inc/Trademark_Guidelines.pdf. Retrieved December 20, 2004.
^ a b c d e Myers, Isabel Briggs; Mary H. McCaulley (1985). Manual: A Guide to Development and Use of Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (2nd ed.). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press. ISBN 0-89106-027-8.
^ a b "CAPT: " Story of Isabel Briggs Myers"". http://www.capt.org/mbti-assessment/isabel-myers.htm. Retrieved 2009-07-29.
^ "Guide to Isabel Briggs Myers Papers 1885-1992". University of Florida George A. Smars Libraries, Department of Special and Area Studies Collections, Gainesville, FL.. 2003. http://web.uflib.ufl.edu/spec/manuscript/guides/Myers.htm. Retrieved December 5, 2005.
^ Eysenck, H.J.. Genius: Natural History of Creativity (1995 ed.). pp. 110.
^ [http://harvey.psyc.vt.edu/Documents/BessHarveySwartzSIOP2003.pdf ""Hierarchical Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Myers-Briggs Type Indicator""] (PDF). http://harvey.psyc.vt.edu/Documents/BessHarveySwartzSIOP2003.pdf. Retrieved 2008-09-14.
^ " Personality Junkie: Personality Type ory". http://personalityjunkie.com/personality-type-ory/. Retrieved 2009-11-22.
^ a b Coffield F, Moseley D, Hall E, Ecclestone K (2004). "Learning styles and pedagogy in post-16 learning: A systematic and critical review" (PDF). Learning and Skills Research Centre. http://www.lsda.org.uk/files/PDF/1543.pdf.
^ a b c d e f Pittenger, David J. (November 1993). "Measuring MBTI...And Coming Up Short." (PDF). Journal of Career Planning and Employment 54 (1): 48–52. http://www.indiana.edu/~jobtalk/HRMWebsite/hrm/articles/develop/mbti.pdf.
^ Boyle, G J (1995). "Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI): Some psychometric limitations". Australian Psychologist 30: 71–74.
^ Francis, L J; Jones, S H (2000). " Relationship Between Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Among Adult Churchgoers". Pastoral Psychology 48.
^ Sipps, G.J., R.A. Alexander, and L. Friedt. "Item Analysis of Myers-Briggs Type Indicator." Educational and Psychological Measurement, Vol. 45, No. 4 (1985), pp. 789-796.
^ Harvey, R J (1996). Reliability and Validity, in MBTI Applications A.L. Hammer, Editor. Consulting Psychologists Press: Palo Alto, CA. p. 5- 29.
^ Carskadon, TG & Cook, DD (1982). "Validity of MBTI descriptions as perceived by recipients unfamiliar with type". Research in Psychological Type 5: 89–94.
^ a b Bess, T.L. & Harvey, R.J. (2001). " Annual Conference of Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, San Diego 2001" (PDF). http://harvey.psyc.vt.edu/Documents/SIOPhandoutBess-HarveyMBTI2001.pdf.
^ Letters to Editor: It's Not You, It's Your Personality. (1992, February 3). Wall Street Journal (Eastern Edition), p. PAGE A13. Retrieved November 8, 2008, from Wall Street Journal database. (Document ID: 27836749).
Hunsley, J.; Lee, C.M.; and Wood, J.M. (2004). Controversial and questionable assessment techniques. Science and Pseudoscience in Clinical Psychology, Lilienfeld SO, Lohr JM, Lynn SJ (eds.). Guilford, ISBN 1-59385-070-0
Bess, T.L.; and Harvey, R.J. (2001, April). Bimodal score distributions and MBTI: Fact or artifact? Paper presented at Annual Conference of Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, San Diego.
Bess, T.L.; Harvey, R.J.; and Swartz, D. (2003). Hierarchical Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Paper presented at Annual Conference of Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Orlando.
Bourne, Dana (2005). Personality Types and Transgender Community. Retrieved November 14, 2005
Falt, Jack. Bibliography of MBTI/Temperament Books by Author. Retrieved December 20, 2004
Georgia State University. GSU Master Teacher Program: On Learning Styles. Retrieved December 20, 2004.
Jung, Carl Gustav (1965). Memories, Dreams, Reflections. Vintage Books: New York, 1965. p. 207
Jung, C. G. (1971). Psychological types (Collected works of C. G. Jung, volume 6). (3rd ed.). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. First appeared in German in 1921. ISBN 0-691-09770-4
Killian, Shaun (2007). More About MBTI, personality and its impact on your effectiveness, MBTI Online.
Matws, Paul (2004). MBTI is a flawed measure of personality. bmj.com Rapid Responses. Retrieved February 9, 2005
Pearman, R.; Lombardo, M.; and Eichinger, R.(2005). YOU: Being More Effective In Your MBTI Type. Minn.:Lominger International, Inc.
Pearman, R.; and Albritton, S. (1996). I'm Not Crazy, I'm Just Not You: Real Meaning of Sixteen Personality Types. Mountain View, Ca: Davies-Black Publishing.
Personality Plus. Employers love personality tests. But what do y really reveal?
Saunders, D. (1989). Type Differentiation Indicator Manual: A scoring system for Form J of Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press, Inc.
Skeptics Dictionary. "Myers-Briggs Type Indicator" 
Virginia Tech. Relationship Between Psychological Type and Professional Orientation Among Technology Education Teachers. Retrieved December 20, 2004
Thomas G. Long (October 1992). "Myers-Briggs and or Modern Astrologies". ology Today 49 (3): 291–95.
Assessing type in children
Criticism of MBTI
Jungian typology assessments
(note that some or assessments offered on se sites may not be free)
ENNEAGRAMMI & ENNEAGRAMMIT
Enneagrammi on tapa hahmottaa ihmisen tyypillistä käyttäytymistä. Se perustuu jo lapsuudessa omaksuttuihin käyttäytymismuotoihin, joiden avulla lapsi on saanut turvallisuutta ja selviytymiskokemuksia. Tätä selviytymisstrategiaa hän helposti soveltaa myös aikuisiässä. Fransiskaanipappi Richard Rohr osiutti, että jo erämaaisät tunsivat ennagrammin sen alkumodossaan (mm. Evagrios Pontoslainen 300-luvulla). Enneagrammi ennustaa siis käyttäytymistyyliä. Näitä tyylejä ajatellaan yleensä olevan yhdeksän: